UAMS Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences - Viscera of the Abdomen

Gross Anatomy


Visceral Structures of the Abdomen - Arranged Alphabetically

Organ/Part of Organ Location/Description Notes
adrenal gland endocrine gland located superomedial to the kidney; right adrenal gland is somewhat triangular in shape, left is semilunar in shape adrenal cortex manufactures corticosteroids; adrenal medulla manufactures epinephrine and norepinephrine; adrenal medulla receives preganglionic sympathetic innervation from the greater thoracic splanchnic n.; also known as: suprarenal gland
angular notch of the stomach a sharp indentation located about 2/3 of the way down the lesser curvature of the stomach angular notch marks the transition from body of stomach to pylorus
appendix, vermiform terminal portion of the cecum which has a small dead-end lumen vermiform appendix is attached to the posteroinferior surface of the cecum; it is usually located behind the cecum in the right iliac fossa; pain from the appendix projects to McBurney's point on anterior abdominal wall (1/3rd distance along and imaginary line from the anterior superior iliac spine to the umbilicus); it has a complete peritoneal covering and a small mesentery (mesoappendix)
appendix epiploica fat-filled pendants of peritoneum projecting from the visceral peritoneum on the surface of the large intestine there are many appendices epiploices on the large intestine (except the rectum) and none on the small intestine; also known as: omental appendage
ascending colon part of the large intestine that is continuous with the cecum proximally and the transverse colon at the right colic (hepatic) flexure ascending colon is retroperitoneal
bare area of the liver the part of the diaphragmatic surface of the liver that is not covered by visceral peritoneum bare area is between the anterior and posterior laminae of the coronary ligament and is in contact with the diaphragm
bile duct, common part of the biliary tree that is formed by the union of the cystic and common hepatic ducts; located in the hepatoduodenal ligament common bile duct drains into the hepatopancreatic ampulla and greater duodenal papilla in company with the main pancreatic duct
calyx, minor portion of the urinary collecting system within the kidney that drains one renal papilla one renal papilla projects into the lumen of one minor calyx; several minor calyces unite to form a major calyx
calyx, major portion of the urinary collecting system within the kidney that drains several minor calyces major calyx collects urine from several renal papillae; all major calyces unite to form the renal pelvis
cardia of the stomach part of the stomach surrounding the opening of the esophagus esophagus empties into the stomach at this location; also known as: cardiac region of the stomach
caudate lobe tail-like projection of the liver caudate lobe arises from the posterior aspect of liver to the left of the inferior vena cava; functionally it is part of both the right and left lobes of liver
cecum first part of the large intestine which is located in the right lower quadrant cecum is continuous with the ileum (small intestine) at the ileocecal valve; it is continuous with the ascending colon distally; it is intraperitoneal but lacks a mesentery; the vermiform appendix is attached to its posteroinferior surface
coronary ligament peritoneum connecting the liver to the inferior surface of the diaphragm it has three parts which together form a complete circle: right triangular ligament, left triangular ligament, falciform ligament; area between the anterior and posterior laminae of the coronary ligament is called the bare area of the liver
cystic duct duct of the gallbladder cystic duct joins with the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct; cystic duct both fills and drains the gallbladder
descending colon part of the large intestine that is continuous with the transverse colon at the left colic (splenic) flexure and the sigmoid colon at the pelvic brim descending colon is retroperitoneal
ductus deferens duct of the testis ductus deferens is continuous with the tail of the epididymis; it passes through the superficial inguinal ring, inguinal canal and deep inguinal ring to reach the posteroinferior surface of the bladder where it joins with the duct of the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct
duodenojejunal junction part of the small intestine where the duodenum is continuous with the jejunum duodenojejunal junction is located in the left upper quadrant; it is suspended by the suspensory muscle (ligament) of the duodenum; the inferior mesenteric v. passes to left side of the duodenojejunal junction
duodenum proximal segment of the small intestine C-shaped; the duodenum has 4 parts: 1st or superior, 2nd or descending, 3rd or transverse, 4th or ascending
epididymis beginning of the duct system of the testis the head of the epididymis is located on the superior surface of the testis and receives sperm from the efferent ductules; the body of the epididymis lies posterolateral to the testis and is separated from the testis by the sinus of the epididymis; the tail of the epididymis is located inferiorly and is continuous with the ductus deferens; the ductus deferens ascends to pass through the abdominal wall via the inguinal canal
epiploic foramen passageway between the greater peritoneal sac and the lesser peritoneal sac located posterior to the hepatoduodenal ligament; also known as: omental foramen
esophagus the portion of the gastrointestinal tract between the pharynx and the stomach connects: superiorly with laryngopharynx at lower border of cricoid cartilage; inferiorly it passes through diaphragm at the T10 vertebral level to reach the stomach; the upper 1/3 is skeletal muscle innervated by the recurrent laryngeal, the lower 2/3rds is smooth muscle innervated by the vagus nn. via the esophageal plexus
falciform ligament sickle-shaped fold of peritoneum connecting the liver to the umbilicus falciform ligament contains the round ligament of the liver (ligament teres hepatis); it is a remnant of the ventral mesogastrium of the embryo
gallbladder diverticulum of the biliary tract that hangs below the liver between the right and quadrate lobes located in the right upper quadrant; gallbladder is connected to the common bile duct via the cystic duct; it both stores and concentrates bile; pain from the gallbladder may be referred to the right shoulder
gallbladder, body of the main part of the gallbladder body of the gallbladder lies in the bed of the gallbladder, between the right and quadrate lobes of the liver
gallbladder, fundus of expanded inferior part of the gallbladder fundus of the gallbladder is located near the inner surface of the anterior abdominal wall at the junction of the right 9th costal cartilage and the right semilunar line; it normally hangs below the margin of the liver
gallbladder, neck of constricted superior part of the gallbladder neck of the gallbladder is the portion that connects the body of the gallbladder to the cystic duct; it contains a spiral fold
gastric folds folds of the mucosal lining of the stomach gastric folds are ridges that generally run from the cardia of the stomach toward the pyloris along the lesser curvature; also known as: rugae
gastrocolic ligament peritoneum connecting the greater curvature of the stomach with the transverse colon part of the greater omentum; derived from the dorsal mesogastrium in the embryo
gastrolienal ligament peritoneum connecting the greater curvature of stomach with the hilum of the spleen part of the greater omentum; derived from the dorsal mesogastrium in the embryo; also known as: gastrosplenic ligament
gastrophrenic ligament peritoneum connecting the fundus of the stomach to the left side of the diaphragm above the spleen part of the greater omentum; derived from the dorsal mesogastrium in the embryo
gastrosplenic ligament peritoneum connecting the greater curvature of stomach with the hilum of the spleen part of the greater omentum; derived from the dorsal mesogastrium in the embryo; also known as: gastrolienal ligament
greater duodenal papilla nipple-like projection into the 2nd part of the duodenum greater duodenal papilla is the site of drainage of the common bile duct and main pancreatic duct
greater omentum apron-like specialization of peritoneum attaching along the greater curvature of the stomach subdivisions: gastrophrenic ligament, gastrosplenic ligament, gastrocolic ligament, omental apron
greater peritoneal sac the portion of the peritoneal cavity that is not located posterior to the stomach the lesser peritoneal sac is the only part of the peritoneal cavity that is not part of the greater peritoneal sac
haustra multiple pouches in the wall of the large intestine haustra form where the longitudinal muscle layer of the wall of the large intestine is deficient; also known as: sacculations
hepatic duct, common duct formed by the joining of the of right and left hepatic ducts common hepatic duct unites with the cystic duct to form the common bile duct
hepatic duct, left duct that drains the left lobe of the liver, quadrate lobe and part of the caudate lobe of the liver left hepatic duct joins with right hepatic duct to form the common hepatic duct
hepatic duct, right duct that drains the right lobe of the liver and part of the caudate lobe of the liver right hepatic duct joins with the left hepatic duct to form the common hepatic duct
hepatic flexure junction of the ascending colon and the transverse colon hepatic flexure lies anterior to the lower part of the right kidney and inferior to the right lobe of the liver; also known as: right colic flexure
hepatoduodenal ligament part of the lesser omentum connecting the liver to the 1st part of duodenum hepatoduodenal ligament contains the common bile duct, proper hepatic a. and portal v.; it forms the anterior wall of the omental (epiploic) foramen
hepatogastric ligament part of the lesser omentum connecting the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach hepatogastric ligament forms the anterior wall of the lesser peritoneal sac
hepatopancreatic ampulla union of the common bile duct and the main pancreatic duct hepatopancreatic ampulla opens onto the greater duodenal papilla in the 2nd part of the duodenum
ileocecal junction point at which the ileum joins the cecum ileocecal valve moderates the flow of intestinal contents from the ileum into the cecum
ileocecal valve a valve that marks the ileocecal junction ileocecal valve is incompetent, not a sphincter; it has superior and inferior lips
ileum most distal part of the small intestine ileum is continuous with the jejunum proximally and terminates at ileocecal junction distally; it is approximately 12 feet in length; it has a thinner wall than the jejunum, lower plicae circulares than the jejunum, more fat in its mesentery than does the jejunum, more complex arterial arcades than the jejunum, shorter arteriae recta than the jejunum
intestine, large part of the intestinal tract distal to the small intestine large intestine is approximately 5 feet long; parts of the large intestine are: cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum; also known as: colon or large bowel
intestine, small part of the small intestine between the stomach proximally and the large intestine distally small intestine is approximately 21 feet long; parts of the small intestine are: duodenum (1 foot long, mostly retroperitoneal); jejunum (8 feet long); ileum (12 feet long)
jejunum part of the small intestine that is continuous with the duodenum proximally (at the duodenojejunal junction) and the ileum distally (no obvious landmark for its termination) jejunum is approximately 8 feet in length; wall of the jejunum is thicker than the wall of the ileum; plicae circulares (circular folds) are more pronounced in the jejunum than in the ileum; mesentery of the jejunum has less fat than that of the ileum; arterial arcades of the jejunum are more simple than those of the ileum; arteriae recta are longer in the jejunum than they are in the ileum
kidney excretory organ of the urinary tract located on the posterior abdominal wall retroperitoneal; right kidney is lower than the left - its superior pole reaches the 12th rib; superior pole of the left kidney reaches as high as the 11th rib; kidneys develop from the intermediate mesoderm in the embryo
lateral inguinal fossa shallow depression on the inner aspect of the abdominal wall lateral to the lateral umbilical fold an indirect inguinal hernia passes through the anterior abdominal wall in this fossa
lateral umbilical fold peritoneal fold overlying the inferior epigastric vessels an indirect inguinal hernia passes through the anterior abdominal wall lateral to this fold; a direct inguinal hernia passes through the anterior abdominal wall medial to this fold
left colic flexure junction of the transverse colon and descending colon left colic flexure lies anterior to the left kidney and inferior to the spleen; also known as: splenic flexure
lesser duodenal papilla nipple-like projection into the 2nd part of the duodenum superior to the greater duodenal ampulla lesser duodenal papilla is the site of drainage of the accessory pancreatic duct
lesser omentum peritoneum stretching between the lesser curvature of the stomach and the visceral surface of the liver subdivisions of the lesser omentum are the heptogastric and hepatoduodenal ligaments; lesser peritoneal sac (omental bursa) lies posterior to the lesser omentum and stomach
lesser peritoneal sac part of the peritoneal cavity located posterior to the stomach and lesser omentum lesser peritoneal sac is continuous with the greater peritoneal sac at the omental (epiploic) foramen; also known as: omental bursa
lienorenal ligament peritoneum that attaches the spleen to the posterior abdominal wall over the left kidney lienorenal ligament develops from the dorsal mesogastrium of the embryo; also known as: splenorenal ligament
ligamentum teres hepatis cord-like ligament that lies within the free margin of the falciform ligament ligamentum teres hepatis courses from the liver to the umbilicus; it is the remnant of the umbilical v.; also known as: round ligament of liver
ligamentum venosum cord-like ligament that lies within the attachment of the hepatogastric ligament to the liver, between the caudate lobe and the left lobe ligamentum venosum is a remnant of the obliterated ductus venosus which shunted oxygenated blood from the placenta around the liver to the inferior vena cava during development
liver largest digestive organ in the body, located mostly in the right upper quadrant the liver consists of 4 anatomical lobes: left, right, quadrate and caudate; it lies inferior to the diaphragm and rises as high as the 5th rib on the right side; liver functions include: synthesis, storage and release of glycogen and vitamins; synthesis of blood proteins; phagocytosis of old red blood cells; removal of toxic substances
medial inguinal fossa shallow depression on the inner aspect of the abdominal wall between the medial inguinal fold and the lateral umbilical fold a direct inguinal hernia passes through the anterior abdominal wall in this fossa; it passes through a subdivision called the inguinal triangle
medial umbilical fold peritoneal fold overlying the medial umbilical ligament medial umbilical ligament is the obliterated umbilical a.
median umbilical fold peritoneal fold overlying the median umbilical ligament (remnant of urachus) median umbilical ligament is the remnant of the urachus
mesentery peritoneum connecting jejunum & ileum to posterior abdominal wall also known as: mesentery of small intestine
mesoappendix peritoneum connecting the vermiform appendix to the mesentery of the small intestine the cecum is retroperitoneal, but the appendix has its own mesentery which contains its blood supply - a clinically relevant detail during appendectomy
omental appendage fat-filled pendants of peritoneum projecting from the visceral peritoneum on the surface of the large intestine there are many omental appendages on the large intestine (except the rectum) and none on the small intestine; also known as: appendix epiploica
omental apron part of the greater omentum that hangs inferiorly from the transverse colon omental apron is derived from the dorsal mesogastrium during development
omental bursa part of the peritoneal cavity located posterior to the stomach and lesser omentum omental bursa is continuous with the greater peritoneal sac at the omental (epiploic) foramen; also known as: lesser peritoneal sac
omental foramen passageway between the greater peritoneal sac and the lesser peritoneal sac located posterior to the hepatoduodenal ligament; also known as: epiploic foramen
pancreas exocrine and endocrine gland located posterior to the stomach on the posterior abdominal wall retroperitoneal; pancreas functions as a digestive and an endocrine (insulin production) gland; main pancreatic duct drains the exocrine secretions of the tail, body and lower part of the head to the greater duodenal papilla within the 2nd part of the duodenum; accessory pancreatic duct drains the exocrine secretions of the upper body and part of the head to the lesser duodenal papilla
pancreas, body of part of the pancreas between the head and tail body of pancreas stretches to the left from the neck of the pancreas; splenic a. lies on the superior border of the body; splenic v. lies posterior to the body
pancreas, head of part of the pancreas located to the right, within the curvature of the duodenum the pancreatic arterial arcades are formed on the anterior and posterior surfaces of the head of the pancreas
pancreas, neck of the junction between the head and the body of the pancreas the neck of the pancreas is a constricted region to the left of the head; superior mesenteric a. arises from the abdominal aorta posterior to the neck of the pancreas
pancreas, tail of part of the pancreas that forms the tapered left end of the organ tail of the pancreas extends into the splenorenal (lienorenal) ligament toward the hilum of the spleen
pancreas, uncinate process of lowest part of the head of the pancreas the uncinate process lies posterior to the superior mesenteric vessels
pancreatic duct, accessory drains part of the head of the pancreas accessory pancreatic ducts opens onto the lesser duodenal papilla
pancreatic duct, main drains the tail, body and part of the head of the pancreas main pancreatic duct unites with the common bile duct at the hepatopancreatic ampulla; it drains onto the greater duodenal papilla
pararenal fat extraperitoneal fat surrounding the kidney pararenal fat is located external to the renal fascia
perirenal fat extraperitoneal fat surrounding the kidney perirenal fat is located within the renal fascia; it is also located within the renal sinus surrounding the calyces and blood vessels
peritoneum serous membrane lining the peritoneal cavity visceral peritoneum lies on the surfaces of the abdominal and pelvic organs; parietal peritoneum lines the inner surfaces of the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity
peritoneum, parietal serous membrane lining the inner surfaces of the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity peritoneum, pleura and pericardium are all serous membranes that formed from the same layer of tissue (splanchnic mesoderm) in the embryo
peritoneum, visceral serous membrane lying on the surfaces of the abdominal and pelvic organs visceral peritoneum is formed from the splanchnic mesoderm in the embryo
porta hepatis region of the visceral surface of the liver where hepatic ducts, hepatic aa. & portal v. enter/leave porta hepatis is equivalent to the hilum of the spleen or lung
pylorus of the stomach constricted distal part of the stomach to the right of the angular notch pyloris contains the pyloric antrum and the pyloric sphincter
quadrate lobe part of liver between the bed of the gallbladder and the round ligament of the liver quadrate lobe has the external appearance of being part of the right lobe, but it is functionally part of the left lobe
renal columns columns of tissue that are histologically identical to tissue found in the renal cortex, but which are located in the medulla between the renal pyramids interlobar arteries pass from the renal sinus to the renal cortex within the renal columns
renal cortex outer layer of kidney renal cortex contains the majority of the glomeruli
renal fascia a fascial pouch derived from extraperitoneal connective tissue that contains the kidneys, the suprarenal glands, the renal vessels and perirenal fat renal fascia of the right and left sides is joined across the midline in close relationship to the renal aa. and vv.; renal fascia encapsulates the inferior vena cava and aorta at the level of origin of the renal vessels; do not confuse renal fascia with the renal capsule - the renal capsule is histologically part of the kidney and there is no fat between it and the kidney
renal hilum opening on medial margin of the kidney leading into the renal sinus the renal vessels enter/leave the kidney at the hilum; the renal pelvis leaves the kidney at the hilum
renal medulla inner layer of the kidney renal medulla contains most of the tubules of the kidney organized as renal pyramids; renal columns consist of cortex-like tissue arranged between the pyramids in the renal medulla
renal papilla tip of renal pyramid projecting into a minor calyx several minor calyces combine to form a major calyx; all of the major calyces in the kidney unite to form the renal pelvis
renal pelvis large collecting duct for urine that is formed by the union of the major calyces renal pelvis is the dilated origin of the ureter; it is located at the renal hilum and is surrounded by the renal sinus
renal pyramid cone-shaped arrangement of tubules in the renal medulla tip of the renal pyramid (papilla) projects into a minor calyx
renal sinus hollowed out area on the medial margin of the kidney renal sinus opens at the renal hilum; it contains the renal aa. and vv., major calyces and renal pelvis, perirenal fat
right colic flexure junction of the ascending colon and the transverse colon right colic flexure lies anterior to the lower part of the right kidney and inferior to the right lobe of the liver; also known as: hepatic flexure
round ligament of the liver cord-like ligament that lies within the free margin of the falciform ligament round ligament of the liver courses from the liver to the umbilicus; it is the remnant of the umbilical v.; also known as: ligamentum teres hepatis
round ligament of the uterus a connective tissue band that attaches to the inner aspect of the labium majus and the uterus round ligament of the uterus traverses the superficial inguinal ring, inguinal canal and deep inguinal ring to reach the lateral surface of the uterus below the uterine tube; it is a remnant of the gubernaculum; it is continuous with the ovarian ligament; it holds the fundus of the uterus forward; also known as: ligamentum teres uteri
rugae of the stomach folds of the mucosal lining of the stomach rugae are ridges that generally run from the cardia of the stomach toward the pyloris along the lesser curvature; also known as: gastric folds
scrotal ligament band of connective tissue that attaches the inferior end of the testis to the inner aspect of the scrotal sac scrotal ligament is the remnant of the gubernaculum testis
scrotum sac of hair-covered skin containing the testis in the scrotum the fatty and membranous layers of the superficial fascia (as seen in the lower abdominal wall) are fused to form the tunica dartos scroti
sigmoid colon part of the distal large intestine located within the lower left quadrant sigmoid colon is continuous proximally with the descending colon at the left pelvic brim; it is continuous distally with the rectum at the level of the 3rd sacral vertebra; it is suspended from posterior abdominal wall by the sigmoid mesocolon
sigmoid mesocolon peritoneum connecting the sigmoid colon to posterior abdominal wall branches of the inferior mesenteric a. approach the sigmoid colon within the sigmoid mesocolon; ascending preganglionic parasympathetic axons course through the sigmoid mesocolon an their route from the pelvis (S2,3,4) to the descending colon
spleen lymphatic organ suspended within the greater omentum in the upper left quadrant spleen is connected to the greater curvature of the stomach by the gastrosplenic (gastrolienal) ligament; it is connected to the left kidney by the splenorenal (lienorenal) ligament; spleen is covered by visceral peritoneum on all of its surfaces
splenorenal ligament peritoneum that attaches the spleen to the posterior abdominal wall over the left kidney splenorenal ligament develops from the dorsal mesogastrium of the embryo; also known as: lienorenal ligament
spermatic cord bundle of vessels, nerves and lymphatics ensheathed in tissue layers derived from the abdominal wall; it begins at the deep inguinal ring, passes through the inguinal canal and the superficial ring to reach the testis in the scrotum spermatic cord contains the: ductus deferens, testicular a., pampiniform plexus, deferential a. & v. and genital br. of the genitofemoral n.; coverings of the cord are the: internal spermatic fascia (from the transversalis fascia), cremasteric muscle and fascia (from the internal abdominal oblique), external spermatic fascia (from the external abdominal oblique aponeurosis)
stomach dilated portion of the digestive system located primarily in the upper left quadrant stomach rotates during embryonic development so that the lesser curvature (originally the anterior surface) faces superiorly and to the right, the greater curvature (originally the posterior surface) faces inferiorly and to the left
stomach, body of part of the stomach between the fundus and the pylorus mucosal surface of the body of the stomach near the lesser curvature has gastric folds
stomach, fundus of expanded superior part of the stomach above the entrance of the esophagus fundus may contain a gas bubble in X rays of patients filmed in a standing position
suprarenal gland endocrine gland located superomedial to the kidney; right suprarenal gland is somewhat triangular in shape, left suprarenal gland is semilunar in shape suprarenal cortex manufactures corticosteroids; suprarenal medulla manufactures epinephrine and norepinephrine; suprarenal medulla receives preganglionic sympathetic innervation from the greater thoracic splanchnic n.; also known as: adrenal gland
teniae coli band of longitudinal smooth muscle on the surface of the large intestine there are three teniae coli, named according to their position on the transverse colon: tenia omentalis (located at the line of attachment of the omental apron), tenia mesocolica (located at the line of attachment of the transverse mesocolon), tenia libera ("free" tenia - it has no mesenteric attachment obscuring it)
tenia libera band of longitudinal smooth muscle on the large intestine tenia libera has no attachment to any peritoneal structure; the easiest of the tenia to see
tenia mesocolica band of longitudinal smooth muscle on the large intestine tenia mesocolica is located at the line of attachment of the transverse mesocolon on the transverse colon
tenia omentalis band of longitudinal smooth muscle on the large intestine tenia omentalis is located at the line of attachment of the omental apron on the transverse colon
testis an endocrine and exocrine gland contained within the scrotum testis is the male gonad; its exocrine product is sperm which drain to the head of the epididymis via efferent ductules; its endocrine product is testosterone; the testis migrates into the scrotum shortly before birth; it is tethered to the scrotum inferiorly by the scrotal ligament (a remnant of the gubernaculum)
transverse colon part of the large intestine located between the left and right colic flexures transverse colon is continuous proximally with the ascending colon at the right colic (hepatic) flexure; it is continuous distally with the descending colon at the left colic (splenic) flexure; it is suspended from the posterior abdominal wall by the transverse mesocolon
transverse mesocolon peritoneum connecting the transverse colon to the posterior abdominal wall transverse mesocolon represents the fusion of the transverse mesocolon with one layer of the greater omentum in the embryo; it forms the floor of the lesser peritoneal sac
triangular ligament extreme left or right end of the coronary ligament of the liver triangular ligaments are formed by the joining of the anterior and posterior laminae of the coronary ligament; they delineate the right and left extremes of the bare area of the liver
tunica albuginea, testis outer white fibrous covering of the testis tunica albuginea is a dense connective tissue capsule that is covered on its external surface by the visceral layer of the tunica vaginalis testis
tunica dartos scroti a subcutaneous layer of smooth muscle located in the scrotum fatty and membranous layers of the superficial fascia (as seen in the lower abdominal wall) are fused in the scrotum to form the tunica dartos scroti
tunica vaginalis testis a peritoneal sac located anterolateral to the testis tunica vaginalis testis has two layers: visceral and parietal; the visceral layer lies on the anterolateral surface of the testis and epididymis; the parietal layer lines the inner surface of the scrotal sac; the word "vaginalis" is derived from the Latin word for sheath
ureter muscular tube that serves as the duct of the kidney to carry urine to the bladder ureter is continuous proximally with the renal pelvis; it passes over the pelvic brim medial to the testicular/ovarian vessels; it passes obliquely through the posterior wall of the urinary bladder and drains at the posterolateral angle of the vesical trigone


Some of the material presented in these tables is contained in the book:
MedCharts Anatomy by Thomas R. Gest and Jaye Schlesinger
Published by ILOC, Inc., New York. Copyright 1995.

The content of these tables has been edited for use in this course by Patrick W. Tank, Ph.D.
Copyright © 2009, Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences.
Unauthorized use is prohibited.




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