UAMS Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences - Veins Tables

Gross Anatomy


Veins

Copyright 2009, Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

NOTE: Many veins follow the branching and distribution pattern of the artery of the same name. This table contains veins that do not travel with an artery of the same name, or that run an independent course from the artery of the same name. See also: Artery Tables.

Selected Veins of the Body - Listed Alphabetically

Vein Tributaries Drains Into Regions Drained Notes
accessory hemiazygos v. left posterior intercostal vv. 4-7 or 8, left bronchial vv., esophageal vv. azygos v. mid levels of the left posterolateral chest wall the azygos system is variable, and levels drained by the accessory hemiazygos v. may vary
angular v. supraorbital v., supratrochlear v. facial vein at the inferior margin of the orbit forehead; upper eyelid; root of the nose angular v. is valveless; it connects with the superior and inferior ophthalmic vv. and can be a source of superficial infectious materials entering the cavernous sinus by this route
antebrachial, median superficial veins of the palm and anterior forearm median cubital v. or basilic v. palm; anterior forearm median antecubital v. is variable in size - it may be large or absent
anterior cardiac v. no named veins are tributary to these vessels right atrium anterior surface of the right ventricle anterior cardiac vv. cross the superficial surface of the right coronary a.
anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal numerous unnamed tributaries from the duodenum and pancreas inferior pancreaticoduodenal v. anterior part of the head of the pancreas; anterior aspect of the 3rd and 4th parts of the duodenum anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal v. connects with the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal v
anterior jugular v. submental v, communicating v. external jugular v. superficial parts of the anterior neck anterior jugular v. is valveless
anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal v. numerous unnamed tributaries from the duodenum and pancreas right gastro-omental v. anterior part of the head of the pancreas; anterior aspect of the 1st and 2nd parts of the duodenum anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal v. connects with the anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal v
arch, dorsal venous of the foot dorsal digital vv. and dorsal metatarsal vv. great saphenous v. medially, small saphenous v. laterally dorsum of the digits and the superficial structures of the dorsum of the foot dorsal venous arch is visible through the thin skin on the dorsum of the foot
arch, dorsal venous of the hand dorsal digital vv. and dorsal metacarpal vv. cephalic v. laterally, basilic v. medially dorsum of the digits and the superficial structures of the dorsum ot the hand dorsal venous arch is visible through the thin skin on the dorsum of the hand
ascending lumbar v. lumbar vv. 1-4 right: azygos v.; left: hemiazygos v. posterior abdominal wall ascending lumbar v. connects adjacent lumbar vv.
auricular, posterior small veins of the subcutaneous tissues behind the ear, stylomastoid v. it unites with the posterior division of the retromandibular v. to form the external jugular region behind the ear posterior auricular v. communicates with the occipital v. behind the ear
azygos v. formed by the union of the ascending lumbar v. and the subcostal v.; tributaries: posterior intercostal vv. 11-2 (right superior intercostal), hemiazygos v., accessory hemiazygos v., esophageal v., right bronchial v. posterior surface of the superior vena cava lateral and posterior walls of the abdomen and chest; esophagus; bronchial tree may connect with the inferior vena cava; arch of azygos passes superior to the root of the lung
basilar venous plexus superior and inferior petrosal sinuses internal vertebral venous plexus cavernous sinus basilar venous plexus is variable; it communicates connects with other small intracranial sinuses that are located nearby
basilic v. medial end of the dorsal venous arch of the hand; superficial veins of the forearm; median cubital v. it unites with the brachial vein(s) to form the axillary v. superficial parts of the medial side of the hand and medial side of the forearm basilic v. communicates with deep veins of the forearm through perforating veins, especially in the cubital region
brachiocephalic v. formed by the union of the subclavian v. and the internal jugular v.; tributaries: vertebral v., thymic v., inferior thyroid v., internal thoracic v., 1st posterior intercostal v., left superior intercostal v. (to the left brachiocephalic v.) the left and right brachiocephalic vv. unite to form the superior vena cava head; neck; upper limb; anterior chest wall at its origin, the left brachiocephalic v. receives the thoracic duct; at its origin, the right brachiocephalic v. receives the right lymphatic duct
cardiac, anterior no named veins are tributary to these vessels right atrium anterior surface of the right ventricle anterior cardiac vv. cross the superficial surface of the right coronary a.
cardiac, great ventricular vv. unites with the oblique v. of the left atrium to form the coronary sinus region of the heart near the anterior interventricular sulcus great cardiac v. is the longest of the cardiac vv.; it accompanies the anterior interventricular a.
cardiac, middle ventricular vv. coronary sinus region of the heart near the posterior interventricular sulcus middle cardiac v. accompanies the posterior interventricular a.
cardiac, small no named veins are tributary to this vessel coronary sinus region of the heart near the inferior vena cava and right coronary sulcus small cardiac v. courses through the coronary sulcus with the right coronary a.
cardiac, smallest no named veins are tributary to these small vessels drain directly into the heart chambers, particularly the atria myocardium also known as: Thebesian vv.; least cardiac vv.; venae cordis minimae
cavernous sinus superior ophthalmic v., cerebral vv., sphenoparietal sinus superior petrosal sinus, inferior petrosal sinus orbit, brain cavernous sinus lies between the cranial and meningeal layers of the dura mater beside the body of the sphenoid bone; cranial nn. III, IV and V1 are in its lateral wall; the internal carotid a. and cranial n. VI are in its lumen
cephalic v. lateral side of the dorsal venous arch of the hand; superficial veins of the forearm axillary vein superficial parts of the lateral hand and lateral forearm median cubital vein usually shunts some of the blood collected by the cephalic v. to the basilic v.
cerebral, great formed by the union of the paired internal cerebral vv. straight sinus deep portions of the cerebrum great cerebral v. is a very short vessel
cerebral, inferior tributaries are unnamed cavernous sinus, transverse sinus, superior petrosal sinus inferior aspect of the cerebral hemispheres inferior cerebral vv. are numerous
cerebral, superior tributaries are unnamed superior sagittal sinus superior aspect of the cerebral hemispheres superior cerebral vv. bleed into the subdural space when injured, resulting in a subdural hematoma; also known as: bridging vv.
common facial formed by the union of the anterior division of the retromandibular v. and the facial v. internal jugular v. face and anterior scalp common facial v. may receive drainage from the lingual v.
confluens of sinuses formed by the joining of the superior sagittal sinus, straight sinus and occipital sinus transverse sinuses all parts of the brain confluens of sinuses lies on the inner surface of the occipital bone; it is between the layers of dura at the junction of the falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli
coronary sinus formed by the union of the great cardiac v. and the oblique v. of the left atrium; tributaries: middle cardiac v., small cardiac v. right atrium heart, except the region drained by the anterior cardiac vv. and the smallest cardiac vv. coronary sinus is located in the coronary (atrioventricular) sulcus; its opening into the right atrium is guarded by an imperfect valve
cystic v. veins of the gall bladder and common bile duct directly into the liver at the bed of the gall bladder gall bladder these multiple small vs. drain the gall bladder and cystic duct directly into the liver
deep dorsal v. of the clitoris many unnamed tributaries vesical venous plexus erectile tissue of the clitoris deep dorsal v. of the clitoris passes anterosuperior to the urogenital diaphragm (between the arcuate pubic ligament and the transverse ligament of the perineum) to enter the pelvic cavity; an unpaired vein
deep dorsal v. of the penis many unnamed tributaries prostatic venous plexus erectile tissue of the penis deep dorsal v. of the penis passes anterosuperior to the urogenital diaphragm (between the arcuate pubic ligament and the transverse ligament of the perineum) to enter the pelvic cavity; an unpaired vein
deep external pudendal v. part of the drainage of the superficial dorsal v. of the penis/clitoris femoral skin and superficial fascia of the penis/clitoris; pubic region deep external pudendal v. shares its region of drainage with the superficial external pudendal v.
deep facial v. facial v. pterygoid venous plexus face deep facial v. is valveless
diploic vv. multiple veins draining the diploe of the skull: frontal diploic, anterior temporal diploic, posterior temporal diploic, occipital diploic meningeal vv.; dural venous sinuses; veins of the scalp bones of the cranial vault diploic vv. connect the venous system of the scalp with the dural sinuses and meningeal vv.
dorsal metacarpal v. of the hand dorsal digital vv. dorsal venous arch of the hand dorsal aspects of the digits of the hand dorsal metacarpal v. drains the adjacent sides of two digits
dorsal metatarsal v. of the foot dorsal digital vv. dorsal venous arch of the foot dorsal aspects of the digits of the foot dorsal metatarsal v. drains the adjacent sides of two digits
dorsal venous arch of the foot dorsal digital vv. and dorsal metatarsal vv. great saphenous v. medially, small saphenous v. laterally dorsum of the digits and the superficial structures of the dorsum of the foot dorsal venous arch is visible through the thin skin on the dorsum of the foot
dorsal venous arch of the hand dorsal digital vv. and dorsal metacarpal vv. cephalic v. laterally, basilic v. medially dorsum of the digits and the superficial structures of the dorsum ot the hand dorsal venous arch is visible through the thin skin on the dorsum of the hand
emissary vv. veins of the scalp veins of the scalp; dural venous sinuses scalp emissary vv. are valveless and can carry blood from superficial to deep or in the reverse direction depending on blood pressure; may carry superficial infectious materials into the dural venous sinuses; there are 4 named emissary vv.: parietal, mastoid, occipital and condyloid; superior ophthalmic v. also acts as an emissary v.
esophageal v. tributaries are unnamed azygos v.; hemiazygos v. esophagus esophageal vv. connect with the esophageal brs. of the left gastric, forming a potential portal-caval venous anastomosis (esophageal varices when enlarged)
external jugular v. formed by the joining of the retromandibular and posterior auricular vv.; tributaries: posterior external jugular v., transverse cervical v., suprascapular v., anterior jugular v. subclavian v. head & neck, shoulder external jugular v. contains valves that may not be fully functional
facial, common formed by the union of the anterior division of the retromandibular v. and the facial v. internal jugular v. face and anterior scalp common facial v. may receive drainage from the lingual v.
facial, deep facial v. pterygoid venous plexus face deep facial v. is valveless
gastric, left esophageal vv.; gastric brs. portal v. lesser curvature of the stomach, lower part of the esophagus left gastric v. communicates with the esophageal vv., forming a portal-caval venous anastomosis (esophageal varices when enlarged); the left gastric v. and right gastric v. are together called the coronary v. because they form a circle
gastric, right gastric brs. portal v. lesser curvature of the stomach the left gastric v. and right gastric v. are together called the coronary v. because they form a circle
gastro-omental, left gastric brs., omental brs. splenic v. greater curvature of the stomach and the greater omentum also known as: left gastroepiploic v.
gastro-omental, right gastric brs., omental brs. superior mesenteric v. greater curvature of the stomach and the greater omentum also known as: right gastroepiploic v.
great cardiac v. ventricular vv. unites with the oblique v. of the left atrium to form the coronary sinus region of the heart near the anterior interventricular sulcus great cardiac v. is the longest of the cardiac vv.; it accompanies the anterior interventricular a.
greater saphenous v. medial end of dorsal venous arch of foot, perforating communications with deep veins, superficial epigastric v., superficial circumflex iliac v., superficial external pudendal v. femoral v. skin and superficial fascia of the medial side of the foot and leg; skin and superficial fascia of most of the thigh; lower abdominal wall; perineal region greater saphenous v. is frequently used as graft material in coronary bypass surgery
hemiazygos v. formed by the joining of the left ascending lumbar v. and the left subcostal v.; tributaries: left posterior intercostal vv. 8 or 9-11; esophageal vv. azygos v. inferior levels of the left posterolateral chest wall the azygos system is variable, and levels drained by the hemiazygos v. may vary
hemiazygos, accessory left posterior intercostal vv. 4-7 or 8, left bronchial vv., esophageal vv. azygos v. mid levels of the left posterolateral chest wall the azygos system is variable, and levels drained by the accessory hemiazygos v. may vary
hepatic, left segmental vv. inferior vena cava entire lateral segment of the left lobe of the liver; superior portion of the medial segment of the left lobe of the liver the lumen of the left hepatic v. is clearly visible within the portion of the inferior vena cave that passes through the liver
hepatic, middle segmental vv. inferior vena cava inferior portion of the medial segment of the left lobe of the liver; inferior part of the anterior segment of the right lobe of the liver the lumen of the middle hepatic v. is clearly visible within the portion of the inferior vena cave that passes through the liver
hepatic, right segmental vv. inferior vena cava superior portion of the anterior segment of the right lobe of the liver; entire posterior segment of the liver the lumen of the right hepatic v. is clearly visible within the portion of the inferior vena cave that passes through the liver
inferior mesenteric v. superior rectal v., sigmoid v., left colic v. splenic v. (or the junction of the splenic v. and superior mesenteric v.) gut from the left colic flexure distally (hindgut derivatives) when the inferior mesenteric v.joins the splenic v., it courses lateral to the 4th part of the duodenum
inferior ophthalmic v. ciliary vv., veins from the muscles of the inferior part of the orbit superior ophthalmic v. inferior portion of the orbit valveless; inferior ophthalmic v. connects with the pterygoid plexus through the inferior orbital fissure
inferior pancreaticoduodenal v. anterior inferior and posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal vv. superior mesenteric v. lower part of duodenum & head of pancreas connects with anterior & posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal vv.
inferior petrosal sinus cavernous sinus sigmoid sinus, at its distal end all regions drained by the cavernous sinus, including the orbit and brain inferior petrosal sinus lies within the dura mater along the inferior portion of the petrous part of the temporal bone
inferior phrenic v. unnamed tributaries from the respiratory diaphragm right: inferior vena cava; left: left suprarenal v. or inferior vena cava diaphragm left inferior phrenic v. may be paired
inferior sagittal sinus unnamed tributaries from the falx cerebri and cerebral hemispheres unites with the great cerebral v. to form the straight sinus medial surfaces fo the cerebral hemispheres inferior sagittal sinus is directly superior to the corpus callosum in the free margin of falx cerebri
inferior thyroid v. numerous tributaries from the thyroid gland, esophageal v, tracheal v., inferior laryngeal v. left and right brachiocephalic vv. inferior part of the thyroid gland inferior thyroid vv. descend on the anterior surface of the trachea
inferior vena cava formed by the union of the paired common iliac vv; tributaries: lumbar vv. 1-4, right ovarian/testicular v., renal vv., right suprarenal v., right inferior phrenic v., hepatic vv. right atrium all of the body below the level of the respiratory diaphragm the inferior vena cava is longer than the abdominal aorta
intercostal, posterior lateral cutaneous br. 1st: brachiocephalic v.; 2nd-4th: superior intercostal v.; right 5th-11th: azygos v.; left 5th-7th or 8th: accessory hemiazygos v.; left 9th-11th: hemiazygos v. intercostal space including skin, muscles and adjacent ribs; the spinal cord at that segmental level and the corresponding vertebra the difference in termination of the intercostal vv. of the left and right sides is explained by the embryonic origin of the azygos system from the (originally symmetrical) supracardinal vv.
intercostal, superior 2nd-4th posterior intercostal vv. right: arch of the azygos v.; left: left brachiocephalic v, intercostal spaces 2-4 superior intercostal v. develops from the cephalic end of the supracardinal v. in the embryo
internal jugular v. formed at the base of the skull where the sigmoid sinus ends; tributaries: pharyngeal vv.; lingual v., common facial v., sternocleidomastoid v., superior thyroid v, middle thyroid v. brachiocephalic v. brain, cranial cavity, skull, face, viscera of the neck internal jugular is the largest vein of the nead and neck
internal pudendal v. deep dorsal v. of the penis/clitoris, v. of the bulb, posterior labial/scrotal v., inferior rectal v. internal iliac crus and bulb of the clitoris/penis; urogenital region, anal region internal pudendal v. passes through the pudendal canal
jugular, anterior submental v, communicating v. external jugular v. superficial parts of the anterior neck anterior jugular v. is valveless
jugular, external formed by the joining of the retromandibular and posterior auricular vv.; tributaries: posterior external jugular v., transverse cervical v., suprascapular v., anterior jugular v. subclavian v. head & neck, shoulder external jugular v. contains valves that may not be fully functional
jugular, internal formed at the base of the skull where the sigmoid sinus ends; tributaries: pharyngeal vv.; lingual v., common facial v., sternocleidomastoid v., superior thyroid v, middle thyroid v. brachiocephalic v. brain, cranial cavity, skull, face, viscera of the neck internal jugular is the largest vein of the nead and neck
jugular, posterior external unnamed veins of the occipital region and superior neck external jugular v. superficial parts of the posterior head and neck posterior external jugular v. may join the external jugular v. at a variable level
left gastric v. esophageal vv.; gastric brs. portal v. lesser curvature of the stomach, lower part of the esophagus left gastric v. communicates with the esophageal vv., forming a portal-caval venous anastomosis (esophageal varices when enlarged); the left gastric v. and right gastric v. are together called the coronary v. because they form a circle
left gastro-omental v. gastric brs., omental brs. splenic v. greater curvature of the stomach and the greater omentum also known as: left gastroepiploic v.
left hepatic v. segmental vv. inferior vena cava entire lateral segment of the left lobe of the liver; superior portion of the medial segment of the left lobe of the liver the lumen of the left hepatic v. is clearly visible within the portion of the inferior vena cave that passes through the liver
left renal v. left ovarian/testicular v., left suprarenal v., sometime the left inferior phrenic v. inferior vena cava left ovary/testis; left ureter; left kidney; left suprarenal gland; left part of the respiratory diaphragm left renal v. crosses the abdominal aorta under the origin of the superior mesenteric a., creating a site of potential compression of the left renal vein
lesser saphenous v. lateral end of the dorsal venous arch of foot popliteal v. skin and superficial fascia of the lateral side of the foot and leg passes deeply into the popliteal fossa
lumbar, ascending lumbar vv. 1-4 right: azygos v.; left: hemiazygos v. posterior abdominal wall ascending lumbar v. connects adjacent lumbar vv.
median antebrachial v. superficial veins of the palm and anterior forearm median cubital v. or basilic v. palm; anterior forearm median antecubital v. is variable in size - it may be large or absent
median cubital v. cephalic basilic superficial part of the hand and forearm a median antebrachial vein occurs occasionally and, when present, it may drain into the median cubital vein
mesenteric, inferior superior rectal v., sigmoid v., left colic v. splenic v. (or the junction of the splenic v. and superior mesenteric v.) gut from the left colic flexure distally (hindgut derivatives) when the inferior mesenteric v.joins the splenic v., it courses lateral to the 4th part of the duodenum
mesenteric, superior ileocolic v., intestinal vv., right colic v., middle colic v., inferior pancreaticoduodenal v., right gastro-epiploic v. portal v. gut from the duodenum to the left colic flexure (midgut derivatives) superior mesenteric v. joins the splenic v. to form the portal v.
metacarpal, dorsal of the hand dorsal digital vv. dorsal venous arch of the hand dorsal aspects of the digits of the hand dorsal metacarpal v. drains the adjacent sides of two digits
metatarsal, dorsal of the foot dorsal digital vv. dorsal venous arch of the foot dorsal aspects of the digits of the foot dorsal metatarsal v. drains the adjacent sides of two digits
middle cardiac v. ventricular vv. coronary sinus region of the heart near the posterior interventricular sulcus middle cardiac v. accompanies the posterior interventricular a.
middle hepatic v. segmental vv. inferior vena cava inferior portion of the medial segment of the left lobe of the liver; inferior part of the anterior segment of the right lobe of the liver the lumen of the middle hepatic v. is clearly visible within the portion of the inferior vena cave that passes through the liver
middle thyroid v. numerous tributaries from the thyroid gland internal jugular v. lateral aspect of the thyroid gland middle thyroid v. crosses superficial to the common carotid a.
oblique v. of the left atrium no named tributaries coronary sinus left auricle and a small portion of the left atrium oblique v. of the left atrium is the remnant of the embryonic left superior vena cava, the proximal portion of which forms the coronary sinus
occipital sinus no named tributaries confluens of sinuses cerebellum lies within the dura mater at the base of the falx cerebelli
of clitoris, deep dorsal many unnamed tributaries vesical venous plexus erectile tissue of the clitoris deep dorsal v. of the clitoris passes anterosuperior to the urogenital diaphragm (between the arcuate pubic ligament and the transverse ligament of the perineum) to enter the pelvic cavity; an unpaired vein
of clitoris, superficial dorsal no named tributaries superficial external pudendal v. skin and superficial fascia of the clitoris superficial dorsal v. of the clitoris is located superficial to the deep fascia of the clitoris
of penis, deep dorsal many unnamed tributaries prostatic venous plexus erectile tissue of the penis deep dorsal v. of the penis passes anterosuperior to the urogenital diaphragm (between the arcuate pubic ligament and the transverse ligament of the perineum) to enter the pelvic cavity; an unpaired vein
of penis, superficial dorsal no named tributaries superficial external pudendal v. skin and superficial fascia of the penis superficial dorsal v. of the penis is located superficial to the deep fascia of the penis
ophthalmic, inferior ciliary vv., veins from the muscles of the inferior part of the orbit superior ophthalmic v. inferior portion of the orbit valveless; inferior ophthalmic v. connects with the pterygoid plexus through the inferior orbital fissure
ophthalmic, superior nasofrontal v., anterior ethmoidal v., posterior ethmoidal v., ciliary vv., central retinal v., lacrimal v., inferior ophthalmic v. cavernous sinus eyeball, superior portion of the orbit, ethmoidal air cells, forehead valveless; superior ophthalmic v. communicates with the angular v.
ovarian v. no named tributaries right: inferior vena cava; left: left renal v. ovary and the distal part of the uterine tube; ureter connects with the uterine v.; a pampiniform plexus occurs, but is not as well developed as that seen in the male
pampiniform venous plexus no named tributaries becomes the testicular vein at the deep inguinal ring testis, epididymis, ductus deferens pampiniform venous plexus surrounds the testicular a. to cool arterial blood before it reaches the testis
pancreaticoduodenal, anterior inferior numerous unnamed tributaries from the duodenum and pancreas inferior pancreaticoduodenal v. anterior part of the head of the pancreas; anterior aspect of the 3rd and 4th parts of the duodenum anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal v. connects with the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal v
pancreaticoduodenal, anterior superior numerous unnamed tributaries from the duodenum and pancreas right gastro-omental v. anterior part of the head of the pancreas; anterior aspect of the 1st and 2nd parts of the duodenum anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal v. connects with the anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal v
pancreaticoduodenal, inferior anterior inferior and posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal vv. superior mesenteric v. lower part of duodenum & head of pancreas connects with anterior & posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal vv.
pancreaticoduodenal, posterior inferior numerous unnamed tributaries from the duodenum and pancreas inferior pancreaticoduodenal v. posterior part of the head of the pancreas; posterior aspect of the 3rd and 4th parts of the duodenum posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal v. connects with the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal v
pancreaticoduodenal, posterior superior numerous unnamed tributaries from the duodenum and pancreas portal v. posterior part of the head of the pancreas; posterior aspect of the 1st and 2nd parts of the duodenum posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal v. connects with the posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal v.
paraumbilical v. unnamed tributaries from the superficial fascia of the anterior abdominal wall umbilical part of left branch of portal vein falciform ligament, round ligament of the liver paraumbilical v. represents a potential site of portal-caval anastomosis; blood may pass retrogradely into the anterior body wall veins near the umbilicus, creating caput medusa clinical sign
petrosal sinus, inferior cavernous sinus sigmoid sinus, at its distal end all regions drained by the cavernous sinus, including the orbit and brain inferior petrosal sinus lies within the dura mater along the inferior portion of the petrous part of the temporal bone
petrosal sinus, superior cavernous sinus sigmoid sinus, at its proximal end all regions drained by the cavernous sinus, including the orbit and brain superior petrosal sinus lies on the petrous ridge within the dura mater at the line of attachment of the tentorium cerebelli
pharyngeal venous plexus unnamed tributaries that drain the pharyngeal wall internal jugular pharynx connects with the pterygoid venous plexus
phrenic, inferior unnamed tributaries from the respiratory diaphragm right: inferior vena cava; left: left suprarenal v. or inferior vena cava diaphragm left inferior phrenic v. may be paired
plexus, basilar venous superior and inferior petrosal sinuses internal vertebral venous plexus cavernous sinus basilar venous plexus is variable; it communicates connects with other small intracranial sinuses that are located nearby
plexus, pampiniform venous no named tributaries becomes the testicular vein at the deep inguinal ring testis, epididymis, ductus deferens pampiniform venous plexus surrounds the testicular a. to cool arterial blood before it reaches the testis
plexus, pharyngeal venous unnamed tributaries that drain the pharyngeal wall internal jugular pharynx connects with the pterygoid venous plexus
plexus, prostatic venous deep dorsal v. of the penis internal iliac v. penis and the prostate gland prostatic venous plexus is connected with the vesical venous plexus
plexus, pterygoid venous descending palatine v., sphenopalatine v., infraorbital v., posterior superior alveolar v., anterior deep temporal v., posterior deep temporal v., middle meningeal v., masseteric v., inferior alveolar v. maxillary v. meninges, nasal cavity, infratemporal fossa valveless; the pterygoid plexus is connected with the cavernous sinus and the pharyngeal venous plexus
plexus, rectal venous no named tributaries superior, middle & inferior rectal vv. rectum and anal canal; anus rectal venous plexus is a site of portal-caval anastomosis
plexus, uterine venous multiple tributaries from the uterus; deep dorsal v. of the clitoris uterine vv. to the internal iliac v. uterus & uterine tubes connects with the ovarian v. and the vaginal venous plexus
plexus, vaginal venous multiple tributaries from the vagina vaginal v. to the internal iliac v. or uterine v. vagina connects with the uterine venous plexus, the vesical venous plexus and the rectal venous plexus
plexus, vertebral venous, external intervertebral vv. adjacent segmental vv.; vertebral v. in the cervical region vertebral column and associated muscles two plexuses are described: anterior and posterior; connects with the internal vertebral venous plexus
plexus, vertebral venous, internal anterior and posterior longitudinal vertebral sinuses adjacent segmental vv. spinal cord, meninges, vertebral column connects with the external vertebral venous plexuses; valveless; a route for potential spread of metastases from the pelvis to the brain
plexus, vesical venous multiple tributaries from the bladder in both sexes superior and inferior vesical vv. to the internal iliac v. urinary bladder in the male - connects with the prostatic venous plexus and the rectal venous plexus; in the female - connects with the rectal venous plexus, uterine venous plexus and vaginal venous plexus
portal v. formed by the union of the superior mesenteric v. and the splenic v.; tributaries: posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal v., right gastric v., left gastric v. divides into right and left branches before entering the liver; into the liver sinusoids all of the gut and its glands portal v. connects with the vena caval drainage at 1) esophagus, 2) rectum, 3) umbilicus, 4) retroperitoneal gut structures; portal v. courses between two capillary beds (gut and liver)
posterior auricular v. small veins of the subcutaneous tissues behind the ear, stylomastoid v. it unites with the posterior division of the retromandibular v. to form the external jugular region behind the ear posterior auricular v. communicates with the occipital v. behind the ear
posterior external jugular v. unnamed veins of the occipital region and superior neck external jugular v. superficial parts of the posterior head and neck posterior external jugular v. may join the external jugular v. at a variable level
posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal numerous unnamed tributaries from the duodenum and pancreas inferior pancreaticoduodenal v. posterior part of the head of the pancreas; posterior aspect of the 3rd and 4th parts of the duodenum posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal v. connects with the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal v
posterior intercostal v. lateral cutaneous br. 1st: brachiocephalic v.; 2nd-4th: superior intercostal v.; right 5th-11th: azygos v.; left 5th-7th or 8th: accessory hemiazygos v.; left 9th-11th: hemiazygos v. intercostal space including skin, muscles and adjacent ribs; the spinal cord at that segmental level and the corresponding vertebra the difference in termination of the intercostal vv. of the left and right sides is explained by the embryonic origin of the azygos system from the (originally symmetrical) supracardinal vv.
posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal v. numerous unnamed tributaries from the duodenum and pancreas portal v. posterior part of the head of the pancreas; posterior aspect of the 1st and 2nd parts of the duodenum posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal v. connects with the posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal v.
prostatic venous plexus deep dorsal v. of the penis internal iliac v. penis and the prostate gland prostatic venous plexus is connected with the vesical venous plexus
pterygoid venous plexus descending palatine v., sphenopalatine v., infraorbital v., posterior superior alveolar v., anterior deep temporal v., posterior deep temporal v., middle meningeal v., masseteric v., inferior alveolar v. maxillary v. meninges, nasal cavity, infratemporal fossa valveless; the pterygoid plexus is connected with the cavernous sinus and the pharyngeal venous plexus
pudendal, deep external part of the drainage of the superficial dorsal v. of the penis/clitoris femoral skin and superficial fascia of the penis/clitoris; pubic region deep external pudendal v. shares its region of drainage with the superficial external pudendal v.
pudendal, internal deep dorsal v. of the penis/clitoris, v. of the bulb, posterior labial/scrotal v., inferior rectal v. internal iliac crus and bulb of the clitoris/penis; urogenital region, anal region internal pudendal v. passes through the pudendal canal
pudendal, superficial external part of the drainage of the superficial dorsal v. of the penis/clitoris great saphenous skin and superficial fascia of the penis/clitoris; pubic region superficial external pudendal v. shares its region of drainage with the deep external pudendal v.
pulmonary v. lobar vv. left atrium lungs there are usually two pulmonary vv. per side, (superior and inferior)
rectal venous plexus no named tributaries superior, middle & inferior rectal vv. rectum and anal canal; anus rectal venous plexus is a site of portal-caval anastomosis
renal, left left ovarian/testicular v., left suprarenal v., sometime the left inferior phrenic v. inferior vena cava left ovary/testis; left ureter; left kidney; left suprarenal gland; left part of the respiratory diaphragm left renal v. crosses the abdominal aorta under the origin of the superior mesenteric a., creating a site of potential compression of the left renal vein
renal, right multiple tributaries exit the kidney inferior vena cava right kidney right renal v. is shorter than the left renal v.
retromandibular v. formed by the union of the superficial temporal v. and maxillary v. anterior and posterior divisions of the retromandibular v. side of the head and scalp; deep face retromandibular v. is contained within the parotid gland; anterior division unites with the facial v. to form the common facial v.; posterior division unites with the posterior auricular v. to form the external jugular v.
right gastric v. gastric brs. portal v. lesser curvature of the stomach the left gastric v. and right gastric v. are together called the coronary v. because they form a circle
right gastro-omental v. gastric brs., omental brs. superior mesenteric v. greater curvature of the stomach and the greater omentum also known as: right gastroepiploic v.
right hepatic v. segmental vv. inferior vena cava superior portion of the anterior segment of the right lobe of the liver; entire posterior segment of the liver the lumen of the right hepatic v. is clearly visible within the portion of the inferior vena cave that passes through the liver
right renal v. multiple tributaries exit the kidney inferior vena cava right kidney right renal v. is shorter than the left renal v.
saphenous, greater medial end of dorsal venous arch of foot, perforating communications with deep veins, superficial epigastric v., superficial circumflex iliac v., superficial external pudendal v. femoral v. skin and superficial fascia of the medial side of the foot and leg; skin and superficial fascia of most of the thigh; lower abdominal wall; perineal region greater saphenous v. is frequently used as graft material in coronary bypass surgery
saphenous, lesser lateral end of the dorsal venous arch of foot popliteal v. skin and superficial fascia of the lateral side of the foot and leg passes deeply into the popliteal fossa
sigmoid sinus transverse sinus, superior petrosal sinus internal jugular v. brain; meninges sigmoid sinus lies within the sigmoid groove covered by dura mater
sinus, cavernous superior ophthalmic v., cerebral vv., sphenoparietal sinus superior petrosal sinus, inferior petrosal sinus orbit, brain cavernous sinus lies between the cranial and meningeal layers of the dura mater beside the body of the sphenoid bone; cranial nn. III, IV and V1 are in its lateral wall; the internal carotid a. and cranial n. VI are in its lumen
sinus, coronary formed by the union of the great cardiac v. and the oblique v. of the left atrium; tributaries: middle cardiac v., small cardiac v. right atrium heart, except the region drained by the anterior cardiac vv. and the smallest cardiac vv. coronary sinus is located in the coronary (atrioventricular) sulcus; its opening into the right atrium is guarded by an imperfect valve
sinus, inferior petrosal cavernous sinus sigmoid sinus, at its distal end all regions drained by the cavernous sinus, including the orbit and brain inferior petrosal sinus lies within the dura mater along the inferior portion of the petrous part of the temporal bone
sinus, inferior sagittal unnamed tributaries from the falx cerebri and cerebral hemispheres unites with the great cerebral v. to form the straight sinus medial surfaces fo the cerebral hemispheres inferior sagittal sinus is directly superior to the corpus callosum in the free margin of falx cerebri
sinus, occipital no named tributaries confluens of sinuses cerebellum lies within the dura mater at the base of the falx cerebelli
sinus, sigmoid transverse sinus, superior petrosal sinus internal jugular v. brain; meninges sigmoid sinus lies within the sigmoid groove covered by dura mater
sinus, straight inferior sagittal sinus, great cerebral vein, superior cerebellar vv. confluens of sinuses deep parts of the cerebrum, cerebellum straight sinus lies within the junction of the falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli; also known as: sinus rectus
sinus, superior petrosal cavernous sinus sigmoid sinus, at its proximal end all regions drained by the cavernous sinus, including the orbit and brain superior petrosal sinus lies on the petrous ridge within the dura mater at the line of attachment of the tentorium cerebelli
sinus, superior sagittal v. of the foramen cecum; superior cerebral vv. confluens of sinuses cerebral hemispheres superior sagittal sinus occupies the superior part of the falx cerebri; lateral lacunae receive grossly visible arachnoid granulations
sinus, transverse confluens of sinuses, inferior cerebral vv. sigmoid sinus brain lies within the line of attachment of the tentorium cerebelli to the inner surface of the calvaria
sinuses, confluens of formed by the joining of the superior sagittal sinus, straight sinus and occipital sinus transverse sinuses all parts of the brain confluens of sinuses lies on the inner surface of the occipital bone; it is between the layers of dura at the junction of the falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli
small cardiac v. no named veins are tributary to this vessel coronary sinus region of the heart near the inferior vena cava and right coronary sulcus small cardiac v. courses through the coronary sulcus with the right coronary a.
smallest cardiac v. no named veins are tributary to these small vessels drain directly into the heart chambers, particularly the atria myocardium also known as: Thebesian vv.; least cardiac vv.; venae cordis minimae
splenic v. proper splenic vv. portal v. spleen multiple proper splenic vv. emerge from the hilum of the spleen and join to form the splenic v.
straight sinus inferior sagittal sinus, great cerebral vein, superior cerebellar vv. confluens of sinuses deep parts of the cerebrum, cerebellum straight sinus lies within the junction of the falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli; also known as: sinus rectus
superficial dorsal v. of the clitoris no named tributaries superficial external pudendal v. skin and superficial fascia of the clitoris superficial dorsal v. of the clitoris is located superficial to the deep fascia of the clitoris
superficial dorsal v. of the penis no named tributaries superficial external pudendal v. skin and superficial fascia of the penis superficial dorsal v. of the penis is located superficial to the deep fascia of the penis
superficial external pudendal v. part of the drainage of the superficial dorsal v. of the penis/clitoris great saphenous skin and superficial fascia of the penis/clitoris; pubic region superficial external pudendal v. shares its region of drainage with the deep external pudendal v.
superior intercostal v. 2nd-4th posterior intercostal vv. right: arch of the azygos v.; left: left brachiocephalic v, intercostal spaces 2-4 superior intercostal v. develops from the cephalic end of the supracardinal v. in the embryo
superior mesenteric v. ileocolic v., intestinal vv., right colic v., middle colic v., inferior pancreaticoduodenal v., right gastro-epiploic v. portal v. gut from the duodenum to the left colic flexure (midgut derivatives) superior mesenteric v. joins the splenic v. to form the portal v.
superior ophthalmic v. nasofrontal v., anterior ethmoidal v., posterior ethmoidal v., ciliary vv., central retinal v., lacrimal v., inferior ophthalmic v. cavernous sinus eyeball, superior portion of the orbit, ethmoidal air cells, forehead valveless; superior ophthalmic v. communicates with the angular v.
superior petrosal sinus cavernous sinus sigmoid sinus, at its proximal end all regions drained by the cavernous sinus, including the orbit and brain superior petrosal sinus lies on the petrous ridge within the dura mater at the line of attachment of the tentorium cerebelli
superior sagittal sinus v. of the foramen cecum; superior cerebral vv. confluens of sinuses cerebral hemispheres superior sagittal sinus occupies the superior part of the falx cerebri; lateral lacunae receive grossly visible arachnoid granulations
superior thyroid v. sternocleidomastoid v., superior laryngeal v., infrahyoid v., cricothyroid v. internal jugular v. superior portion of the thyroid gland and surrounding structures superior thyroid v. is the only thyroid v. to accompany an artery; it crosses superficial to the common carotid a.
superior vena cava formed by the union of the paired brachiocephalic vv.; tributary: azygos arch right atrium all of the body above the level of the diaphragm except for those regions drained by the pulmonary vv. and coronary vv. superior vena cava is formed posterior to the first costal cartilage on the right side
suprarenal v. no named tributaries left: left renal v.; right: inferior vena cava suprarenal gland left suprarenal v. is usually joined by the left inferior phrenic v.; also known as: central v. of the suprarenal
testicular v. pampiniform plexus left: left renal v.; right: inferior vena cava testis, ureter left testicular v. is longer than the right testicular v.
thoracoepigastric v. numerous vv. of the superficial fascia lateral thoracic v. skin and superficial fascia of the anterolateral body wall thoracoepigastric v. connects the superficial circumflex iliac v. and the superficial epigastric v. - it can serve as collateral drainage when the inferior vena cava is blocked
thyroid, inferior numerous tributaries from the thyroid gland, esophageal v, tracheal v., inferior laryngeal v. left and right brachiocephalic vv. inferior part of the thyroid gland inferior thyroid vv. descend on the anterior surface of the trachea
thyroid, middle numerous tributaries from the thyroid gland internal jugular v. lateral aspect of the thyroid gland middle thyroid v. crosses superficial to the common carotid a.
thyroid, superior sternocleidomastoid v., superior laryngeal v., infrahyoid v., cricothyroid v. internal jugular v. superior portion of the thyroid gland and surrounding structures superior thyroid v. is the only thyroid v. to accompany an artery; it crosses superficial to the common carotid a.
thyroidea ima v. formed by a high union of the right and left inferior thyroid vv. left brachiocephalic vein inferior part of the thyroid gland an occasional branch; a midline structure which is in danger during tracheostomy
transverse sinus confluens of sinuses, inferior cerebral vv. sigmoid sinus brain lies within the line of attachment of the tentorium cerebelli to the inner surface of the calvaria
uterine venous plexus multiple tributaries from the uterus; deep dorsal v. of the clitoris uterine vv. to the internal iliac v. uterus & uterine tubes connects with the ovarian v. and the vaginal venous plexus
vaginal venous plexus multiple tributaries from the vagina vaginal v. to the internal iliac v. or uterine v. vagina connects with the uterine venous plexus, the vesical venous plexus and the rectal venous plexus
vena cava, inferior formed by the union of the paired common iliac vv; tributaries: lumbar vv. 1-4, right ovarian/testicular v., renal vv., right suprarenal v., right inferior phrenic v., hepatic vv. right atrium all of the body below the level of the respiratory diaphragm the inferior vena cava is longer than the abdominal aorta
vena cava, superior formed by the union of the paired brachiocephalic vv.; tributary: azygos arch right atrium all of the body above the level of the diaphragm except for those regions drained by the pulmonary vv. and coronary vv. superior vena cava is formed posterior to the first costal cartilage on the right side
vena comitans nervi hypoglossi no named tributaries lingual v. tongue vena comitans nervi hypoglossi accompanies CN XII
venae cordis minimae no named veins are tributary to these small vessels drain directly into the heart chambers, particularly the atria myocardium also known as: Thebesian vv.; least cardiac vv.; smallest cardiac vv.
vertebral venous plexus, external intervertebral vv. adjacent segmental vv.; vertebral v. in the cervical region vertebral column and associated muscles two plexuses are described: anterior and posterior; connects with the internal vertebral venous plexus
vertebral venous plexus, internal anterior and posterior longitudinal vertebral sinuses adjacent segmental vv. spinal cord, meninges, vertebral column connects with the external vertebral venous plexuses; valveless; a route for potential spread of metastases from the pelvis to the brain
vesical venous plexus multiple tributaries from the bladder in both sexes superior and inferior vesical vv. to the internal iliac v. urinary bladder in the male - connects with the prostatic venous plexus and the rectal venous plexus; in the female - connects with the rectal venous plexus, uterine venous plexus and vaginal venous plexus


Some of the material presented in these tables is contained in the book:
MedCharts Anatomy by Thomas R. Gest and Jaye Schlesinger
Published by ILOC, Inc., New York. Copyright 1995.

The content of these tables has been edited for use in this course by Patrick W. Tank, Ph.D.
Copyright 2009, Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences.
Unauthorized use is prohibited.




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