UAMS Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences - Topographical Anatomy Tables

Gross Anatomy


Topographical Anatomy - Organized by Region

Copyright 2009, Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences



Back Thorax Abdomen Pelvis and Perineum Upper Limb Lower Limb Head and Neck


Topographical Anatomy of the Back - Listed Alphabetically

Structure/Space Description/Boundaries Significance
external occipital protuberance a bump located in the midline on the posterior surface of the occipital bone the medial ends of the superior nuchal lines meet at the external occipital protuberance; the ligamentum nuchae attaches here
lumbar triangle a triangle defined by the border of the latissimus dorsi m. medially, the external abdominal oblique m. laterally and the iliac crest inferiorly; its floor is the internal abdominal oblique m. lumbar triangle may be the site of an abdominal hernia; also known as: triangle of Petit
natal cleft midline cleft between the buttocks natal cleft lies between the gluteus maximus muscles
paravertebral line an imaginary line located lateral to the midline on the posterior surface of the body, parallel to the vertebral column paravertebral line is used as a descriptive landmark
quadrangular space an area on the posterior surface of the back bounded by the teres minor m. superiorly, the teres major m. inferiorly, the long head of the triceps brachii m. medially and the humerus laterally the axillary n. and the posterior circumflex humeral a. pass through this space
triangle of auscultation a triangle located below the inferior angle of the scapula bounded by the trapezius m. medially, rhomboideus major m. superiorly and the latissimus dorsi m. inferiorly; its floor is the posterior thoracic wall triangle of auscultation is used to listen to (auscultate) the lungs because the stethoscope can be placed close to the thoracic wall at this location
triangular interval the interval between the teres major m. superiorly, long head of the triceps brachii m. medially and humerus laterally the radial n. passes through this interval to get from the axilla to the posterior surface of the humerus
triangular space the space bounded by the teres minor m. superiorly, the teres major m. inferiorly and the long head of the triceps brachii m. laterally the circumflex scapular vessels are located in this space as they pass from the axilla to the dorsum of the scapula
vertebra prominens the C7 vertebra, so named because its spine is easily seen and palpated vertebra prominens is an easily palpable landmark which indicates the level of transition from cervical to thoracic vertebra
vertebral furrow midline furrow down the back surface landmark that indicates the location of the vertebral spines; the erector spinae muscle masses lie on either side of it


Topographical Anatomy of the Upper Limb - Listed Alphabetically

Structure/Space Description/Boundaries Significance
adductor/interosseous compartment a compartment in the hand bounded on its palmar surface by the fascia covering adductor pollicis m. and interosseous mm., and on its dorsal surface by the interosseous fascia adductor/interosseous compartment contains the metacarpal bones, the adductor pollicis m. and the palmar & dorsal interosseous mm.
anterior (flexor) compartment of the arm compartment bounded at its posterior extent by the medial and lateral intermuscular septa and the humerus; it is bounded anteriorly, laterally and medially by the brachial fascia anterior compartment of the arm contains flexor muscles of the arm (biceps brachii m., coracobrachialis m., brachialis m.) which are innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve
anterior (flexor) compartment of the forearm compartment bounded at its posterior extent by the medial and lateral intermuscular septa, the radius, the ulna and the interosseous membrane; it is bounded anteriorly, laterally and medially by the antebrachial fascia anterior compartment of the forearm contains flexor muscles of the hand (superficially - pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris; intermediate layer - flexor digitorum superficialis; deep layer - flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus, pronator quadratus); it also contains the median n., ulnar n. and ulnar a.
anterior axillary fold a fold of skin and muscle with the pectoralis major m. as its muscular component axillary tail of the mammary gland courses along the anterior axillary fold
axilla fat-filled space located lateral to the thoracic wall and anterior to the scapula; it is bounded: superiorly by the clavicle, scapula and 1st rib; inferiorly by the axillary fascia; anteriorly by the pectoralis major and minor mm.; posteriorly by the subscapularis m.; laterally by the humerus; medially by the serratus anterior m. and thoracic wall axilla contains the infraclavicular part of the brachial plexus (divisions, cords and terminal branches), the axillary a. and v. and the axillary lymph nodes
carpal tunnel an osseofibrous tunnel in the hand formed by the flexor retinaculum and the carpal bones carpal tunnel contains the tendons of the flexors of the digits (flexor pollicis longus m., flexor digitorum superficialis m. flexor digitorum profundus m.) and the median nerve which may be compressed in this location resulting in carpal tunnel syndrome
cubital fossa a shallow depression on the anterior surface of the elbow region; it is bounded superiorly by and imaginary line between the humeral epicondyles, medially by the lateral border of the pronator teres m. and laterally by the medial border of the brachioradialis m. the median cubital v. crosses this region and is a site for phlebotomy
deltopectoral triangle a triangle in the upper chest region that is bounded medially by the clavicle, superiorly by the deltoid m. and inferiorly by the pectoralis major m. deltopectoral triangle is pierced by the cephalic vein on its course from the upper limb to join the axillary vein in the axilla
hypothenar compartment compartment in the hand bounded by the fascia covering the intrinsic muscles of 5th digit hypothenar compartment contains the short muscles of the 5th digit: (abductor digiti minimi m., flexor digiti minimi brevis m., opponens digiti minimi m.)
midpalmar space a space in the palm bounded by: hypothenar fascia medially and the septum attaching the palmar aponeurosis to the third metacarpal bone laterally; palmar aponeurosis superficially and fascia of the interosseous mm. deeply midpalmar space may cause infections to become localized in the palm
posterior (extensor) compartment of the arm compartment bounded at its anterior extent by the medial and lateral intermuscular septa and humerus; it is bounded posteriorly, laterally and medially by the brachial fascia posterior compartment of the arm contains the extensor muscles of the elbow (triceps brachii m., anconeus m.), the radial n.and the deep brachial a.
posterior (extensor) compartment of the forearm compartment bounded at its anterior extent by the medial and lateral intermuscular septa, the radius, the ulna and the interosseous membrane; it is bounded posteriorly, laterally and medially by the antebrachial fascia posterior compartment of the forearm contains extensor muscles of the hand and wrist (superficial group - brachioradialis m., extensor carpi radialis longus m., extensor carpi radialis brevis m., extensor digitorum m., extensor digiti minimi m., extensor carpi ulnaris m.; deep group - supinator m., abductor pollicis longus m., extensor pollicis brevis m., extensor pollicis longus m., extensor indicis m.); it contains the superficial and deep radial nn., the posterior interosseous artery and the radial artery
posterior axillary fold a fold of skin and muscle with the teres major and latissimus dorsi mm. as the muscular components the posterior extent of the floor of the axilla
quadrangular space the space bounded by the teres minor m. superiorly, the teres major m. inferiorly, the long head of the triceps brachii m. medially and the humerus laterally the axillary n. and the posterior circumflex humeral a. pass through this space
thenar compartment compartment in the hand bounded by the fascia covering the intrinsic muscles of the thumb thenar compartment contains the short muscles of the thumb (abductor pollicis brevis m., flexor pollicis brevis m., opponens pollicis m.) and the tendon of the flexor pollicis longus m.
triangular space the space bounded by the teres minor m. superiorly, the teres major m. inferiorly and the long head of the triceps brachii m. laterally the circumflex scapular vessels are located in this space as they pass from the axilla to the dorsum of the scapula


Topographical Anatomy of the Head & Neck - Listed Alphabetically

Structure/Space Description/Boundaries Significance
carotid triangle boundaries: anterior - superior belly of the omohyoid m.; posterior - sternocleidomastoid m.; superior - posterior belly of the digastric m.; the carotid artery branches here
cervical triangle, anterior boundaries: medial - midline; lateral - anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid m.; superior - lower border of the mandible anterior cervical triangle may be subdivided into the carotid triangle and the muscular triangle
cervical triangle, posterior boundaries: anterior - sternocleidomastoid m.; posterior - trapezius m.; inferior - middle 1/3 of the clavicle posterior cervical triangle may be subdivided by the inferior belly of the omohyoid m. to form an omoclavicular triangle; the external jugular vein crosses the posterior cervical triangle
cranial fossa, anterior boundaries: anterior - inner surface of the frontal bone; posterior - posterior edge of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone frontal lobes of the brain are located within the anterior cranial fossa; cranial nerve I exits the cranial cavity here
cranial fossa, middle boundaries: anterior - posterior edge of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone; posterior - petrous ridge of the temporal bone temporal lobes of the brain and pituitary gland are located within the middle cranial fossa; cranial nerves II, III, IV, V and VI exit the cranial cavity here
cranial fossa, posterior boundaries: anterior - petrous ridge of the temporal bone; posterior - inner surface of the occipital bone cerebellum and brainstem are located within the posterior cranial fossa; cranial nerves VII, VIII, IX, X, XI and XII exit the cranial cavity here
infratemporal fossa area medial to the angle of the mandible bounded above by the infratemporal surface of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, anteriorly by the alveolar border of the maxilla, laterally by the ramus of the mandible and deeply by the lateral pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone infratemporal fossa has the foramen rotundum and foramen spinosum in its roof; maxillary a. and its branches are located here; branches of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V3) are located here
muscular triangle boundaries: medial - midline; superior - body of the hyoid bone; superolateral - superior belly of the omohyoid m.; inferolateral - sternocleidomastoid m. muscular triangle contains the strap muscles of the neck; larynx and thyroid gland lie deep to the strap muscles
omoclavicular triangle boundaries: superior - inferior belly of the omohyoid m.; anterior - sternocleidomastoid m.; inferior - middle 1/3 of the clavicle the external jugular vein courses deeply through the omoclavicular triangle
submandibular triangle boundaries: anterior - anterior belly of the digastric m.; posterior - posterior belly of the digastric m.; superior - lower border of mandible submandibular triangle contains the submandibular gland
submental triangle boundaries: lateral - anterior belly of the digastric m.; medial - midline; inferior - body of the hyoid bone submental triangle contains the submental a. and v.
temporal fossa area on the lateral surface of the skull bounded above by the temporal lines, anteriorly by the frontal and zygomatic bones and inferiorly by the zygomatic arch; it is bounded deeply by the frontal, parietal and temporal bones and the greater wing of the sphenoid bone the temporalis m. nearly fills the temporal fossa


Topographical Anatomy of the Thorax - Listed Alphabetically

Structure/Space Description/Boundaries Significance
midaxillary line an imaginary vertical line passing through the middle of the axilla used as a surface landmark for descriptive purposes
midclavicular line an imaginary vertical line passing through the midshaft of the clavicle used as a surface landmark for descriptive purposes
nipple located superficial to the 4th intercostal space in the male and prepuberal female location of the left nipple may be used to help locate the apex of heart, which is approximately 8 cm from the midline in the left 5th intercostal space; a surface landmark used to place the stethoscope for auscultation of the bicuspid valve
sternal angle a protrusion on the anterior thoracic wall at the junction of the manubrium and body of the sternum (manubriosternal symphysis) sternal angle is the location of the attachment of t the costal cartilage of the 2nd rib to the sternum; an imaginary horizontal plane through the sternal angle passes through the T4/T5 intervertebral disc and marks the inferior boundary of the superior mediastinum
suprasternal notch the notch located at the superior border of the manubrium of the sternum, between the sternal ends of the clavicles also known as: jugular notch
thoracic inlet the opening at the superior end of the rib cage through which cervical structures enter the thorax; bounded by the T1 vertebral body, both of the 1st ribs and their costal cartilages, and the manubrium of the sternum thoracic inlet marks the boundary between the neck and the superior mediastinum; also known as: superior thoracic aperture
thoracic outlet the opening at the inferior end of the rib cage through which thoracic structures exit the thorax; it is bounded by the T12 vertebral body, both 12th ribs, the costal cartilages of ribs 7-12, and the xiphisternal joint thoracic outlet is closed by the respiratory diaphragm which is attached at its boundary; also known as: inferior thoracic aperture


Topographical Anatomy of the Abdomen - Listed Alphabetically

Structure/Space Description/Boundaries Significance
arcuate line anatomical feature on the inner surface of the abdominal wall; a fascial line in the transverse plane approximately 1/2 of the distance from the umbilicus to the pubic symphysis arcuate line is the point at which the posterior lamina of the rectus sheath ends and transversalis fascia lines the inner surface of the rectus abdominis m.
epigastric region an area on the anterior abdominal wall between the midclavicular lines, superior to the transpyloric line one of 9 regions of the abdomen
hypochondriac region an area on the anterior abdominal wall lateral to the midclavicular line, superior to the transpyloric line one of 9 regions of the abdomen; bilateral
hypogastric region an area on the anterior abdominal wall between the midclavicular lines, inferior to the intertubercular line one of 9 regions of the abdomen; also known as: pubic region
inguinal region anterior abdominal wall lateral to midclavicular line, inferior to intertubercular line one of 9 regions of the abdomen; also known as: iliac region
intercristal line an imaginary line drawn in the horizontal plane at the upper margin of the iliac crests intercristal line locates the level of the L4 vertebra; a useful landmark in spinal tap procedure
intertubercular line an imaginary line drawn in the horizontal plane at the upper margin of the iliac tubercles intertubercular line locates the level of the L5 vertebra; used with midinguinal and transpyloric lines to divide the abdominal wall into 9 regions
linea alba anatomical feature on the midline of the anterior abdominal wall; an aponeurotic band that extends from the xiphoid process to the pubic symphysis; linea alba is formed by the combined abdominal muscle aponeuroses; it is used for midline abdominal incisions to avoid major nerves or vessels
lumbar region an area on the anterior abdominal wall lateral to the midclavicular line, inferior to transpyloric line, superior to intertubercular line one of 9 regions of the abdomen; also known as: lateral region
McBurney's point a point on the anterior abdominal wall which is 1/3 of the distance along a line from the right anterior superior iliac spine to the umbilicus McBurney's point is the approximate location of the vermiform appendix; point of tenderness in appendicitis
midaxillary line an imaginary vertical line passing through the middle of the axilla used as a surface landmark for descriptive purposes
midclavicular line an imaginary vertical line passing through the midshaft of the clavicle used as a surface landmark for descriptive purposes
midinguinal line an imaginary vertical line passing through the midpoint of inguinal ligament used with the transpyloric and intertubercular lines to divide the abdomen into 9 regions
quadrant, left lower a region on the anterior abdominal wall defined by the midline and the transumbilical line one of 4 abdominal quadrants
quadrant, right lower a region on the anterior abdominal wall defined by the midline and the transumbilical line one of 4 abdominal quadrants
quadrant, left upper a region on the anterior abdominal wall defined by the midline and the transumbilical line one of 4 abdominal quadrants
quadrant, right upper a region on the anterior abdominal wall defined by the midline and the transumbilical line one of 4 abdominal quadrants
semilunar line an anatomical feature of the anterior abdominal wall; the lateral edge of the rectus abdominis m. semilunar line is formed by the fused aponeuroses of the abdominal wall mm. at the lateral margin of the rectus sheath
transpyloric line an imaginary horizontal line 1/2 of the distance between the jugular notch and the pubic crest transpyloric line is used with the midinguinal and intertubercular lines to divide the abdominal wall into 9 regions; the fundus of the gall bladder lies at the intersection of the transpyloric line with the right 9th costal cartilage; the pylorus of the stomach is located at this plane; a horizontal plane through the transpyloric line locates the level of the L1 vertebra
transumbilical line an imaginary horizontal line through the umbilicus transumbilical line is used with the midline to divide abdomen into 4 quadrants
transverse lines anatomical features in the anterior abdominal wall; folds in the anterior abdominal wall (usually 3) transverse lines are creases that overlie the tendinous intersections in the rectus abdominis m.
umbilical region a region on the anterior abdominal wall between the midclavicular lines, inferior to the transpyloric line, superior to the intertubercular line one of 9 regions of the abdomen
umbilicus remnant of the attachment of the umbilical cord to the anterior abdominal wall umbilicus marks the approximate level of the L3/L4 intervertebral disc in non-obese individuals


Topographical Anatomy of the Pelvis & Perineum - Listed Alphabetically

Structure/Space Description/Boundaries Significance
anal triangle posterior subdivision of the diamond-shaped perineum; its boundaries are: anteriorly - posterior margin of the perineal membrane (corresponds to an imaginary line connecting the ischial tuberosities); posterolaterally - sacrotuberous ligament anal triangle is the location of the terminal end of the gastrointestinal tract (anus)
ischioanal fossa a fat-filled space located lateral to the anal canal and inferior to the pelvic diaphragm; its boundaries are: superomedially - pelvic diaphragm (anterior recess extends superior to the urogenital diaphragm); medially - external anal sphincter muscle and anal canal; laterally - obturator internus fascia and ischial tuberosity; posterolaterally - sacrotuberous ligament and gluteus maximus m.; (posterior recess extends superior to the gluteus maximus m.) the fat and loose connective tissue in the ischioanal fossa compresses to allow passage of feces; also known as: ischiorectal fossa
natal cleft midline cleft between the buttocks natal cleft lies between the gluteus maximus muscles
perineum a diamond-shaped space forming the outlet of the pelvis; its boundaries are: anterolaterally - inferior pubic ramus, ischial ramus and ischial tuberosity; posterolaterally - sacrotuberous ligament perineum is subdivided into the anal triangle and urogenital triangle by an imaginary line connecting the ischial tuberosities
urogenital triangle anterior subdivision of the diamond-shaped perineum; its boundaries are: anterolaterally - inferior pubic ramus, ischial ramus; posteriorly - posterior margin of perineal membrane (corresponds to an imaginary line connecting the ischial tuberosities) urogenital triangle is the location of the terminal portion of the urinary tract and genital tract


Topographical Anatomy of the Lower Limb - Listed Alphabetically

Structure/Space Description/Boundaries Significance
adductor canal a musculo-fascial canal that contains the large neurovascular bundle of the anterior thigh; its boundaries are: anterior - sartorius m.; lateral - vastus medialis m.; posterior - adductor longus m. and adductor magnus m.; it begins proximally at the inferior angle of the femoral triangle and ends distally at the adductor hiatus adductor canal contains the femoral a. and v., the saphenous n. and the nerve to the vastus medialis m.; also known as: Hunter's canal, subsartorial canal
adductor hiatus an opening in the tendon of insertion of the adductor magnus m.; its boundaries are: medial - portion of the tendon of adductor magnus that attaches to the adductor tubercle, lateral - insertion of the adductor magnus into the linea aspera, inferior - femur femoral a. and v. pass through the adductor hiatus to reach the posterior surface of the knee, where their name changes to popliteal a. and v.
anterior compartment, leg a connective tissue compartment that contains muscles that dorsiflex the ankle; its boundaries are: tibia, fibula, interosseous membrane, anterior intermuscular septum anterior compartment of the leg contains the tibialis anterior m., extensor hallucis longus m., extensor digitorum longus m., fibularis tertius m.; it also contains the anterior tibial a. and the deep fibular n.; also known as: extensor compartment of the leg
anterior compartment, thigh a connective tissue compartment that contains muscles that extend the knee; its boundaries are: anterior and lateral - fascia lata of the thigh; posterior ; femur, medial intermuscular septum and lateral intermuscular septum anterior compartment of the thigh contains the quadriceps femoris m.and sartorius m.; also known as extensor compartment of the thigh
fascia lata deep fascia forming a tubular investment of the thigh fascia lata is thickened laterally to form the iliotibial tract/band; it is connected to the femur by the lateral and medial intermuscular septa which divide the thigh into compartments; Scarpa's fascia attaches to the external surface of the fascia lata inferior to the inguinal ligament
fascia, crural deep fascia forming a tubular investment of the leg crural fascia is continuous with the fascia lata at the level of the knee; it is connected to the fibula by the anterior and posterior intermuscular septa; crural fascia is thickened near the ankle to form the extensor and flexor retinacula
fascia, gluteal deep fascia covering gluteus medius m., it extends between the iliac crest and superolateral border of the gluteus maximus m. also known as: gluteal aponeurosis
femoral canal a short diverticulum within the femoral sheath that extends distal to the inguinal ligament on the medial side of the femoral vessels; its boundaries are: medial - lacunar ligament; lateral - fascia on the femoral vein; anterior - inguinal ligament; posterior - fascia on the pectineus m. femoral canal is the medial compartment of the femoral sheath; it opens into the abdominal cavity superiorly at the femoral ring; it may be the site of a femoral hernia; usually contains a deep inguinal lymph node (gland of Cloquet)
femoral ring opening into the femoral canal; its boundaries are: medial - lacunar ligament, lateral - fascia on the femoral vein, anterior - inguinal ligament, posterior - fascia on the pectineus m. if a femoral hernia develops, the herniated gut passes through the femoral ring
femoral triangle a musculo-fascial triangle on the anterior surface of the thigh; its boundaries are: superior - inguinal ligament, lateral - sartorius m., medial - medial edge of the adductor longus m. femoral triangle contains the femoral a., v. and n.; textbooks may disagree on the medial boundary of this triangle
Hunter's canal a musculo-fascial canal that contains the large neurovascular bundle of the anterior thigh; its boundaries are: anterior - sartorius m.; lateral - vastus medialis m.; posterior - adductor longus m. and adductor magnus m.; it begins proximally at the inferior angle of the femoral triangle and ends distally at the adductor hiatus Hunter's canal contains the femoral a. and v., the saphenous n. and the nerve to the vastus medialis m.; also known as: adductor canal, subsartorial canal
lateral compartment , thigh a connective tissue compartment that contains the muscles of the gluteal region; it is located posterolateral to the hip joint lateral compartment of the thigh contains: tensor fasciae latae m., gluteus maximus m., gluteus medius m., gluteus minimis m., piriformis m., superior and inferior gemellus mm., quadratus femoris m.; obturator internus tendon; also known as: gluteal compartment of the thigh
lateral compartment, leg a connective tissue compartment that contains the muscles that evert the ankle joint; its boundaries are: anterior, lateral and medial - crural fascia; posterior - anterior and posterior intermuscular septa, fibula lateral compartment of the leg contains: fibularis longus m., fibularis brevis m.; superficial fibular n.; also known as: evertor compartment of the leg
medial compartment, thigh a connective tissue compartment that contains the muscles that adduct the thigh; its boundaries are: anterior - medial intermuscular septum; posterior - fascia between the medial and posterior compartments; medial - fascial lata; lateral - femur medial compartment of the thigh contains: pectineus m., adductor longus m., adductor brevis m., adductor magnus m., gracilis m., obturator externus m.; also known as: adductor compartment of the thigh
popliteal fossa the shallow depression on the posterior surface of the knee; its boundaries are: superomedial - tendons of semimembranosus and semitendinosus mm., superolateral - tendon of biceps femoris m., inferior - medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius m. popliteal fossa contains: popliteal a. and v. and their branches; tibial n, common fibular n., popliteus m.
posterior compartment , leg a connective tissue compartment that contains the muscles that plantar flex the ankle joint; its boundaries are: anterior - tibia, fibula and interosseous membrane; lateral, medial and posterior - crural fascia posterior compartment of the leg contains: superficially - gastrocnemius m., soleus m., plantaris m.; deeply - popliteus m., tibialis posterior m., flexor digitorum longus m., flexor hallucis longus m.; it also contains the posterior tibial a. and v. and the tibial n.
posterior compartment, thigh a connective tissue compartment that contains the muscles that flex the knee joint and extend the hip joint; its boundaries are: anterior - lateral intermuscular septum, femur and fascia between the medial and posterior compartments; lateral, medial and posterior - fascia lata posterior compartment of the thigh contains: semimembranosus m., semitendinosus m., biceps femoris m.; sciatic nerve; also known as: hamstring compartment
saphenous hiatus an opening in the fascia lata located inferior to the inguinal ligament and lateral to the pubic tubercle saphenous hiatus is the site of passage of the greater saphenous vein which joins the femoral vein; it is closed by the cribriform fascia
subsartorial canal a musculo-fascial canal that contains the large neurovascular bundle of the anterior thigh; its boundaries are: anterior - sartorius m.; lateral - vastus medialis m.; posterior - adductor longus m. and adductor magnus m.; it begins proximally at the inferior angle of the femoral triangle and ends distally at the adductor hiatus subsartorial canal contains the femoral a. and v., the saphenous n. and the nerve to the vastus medialis m.; also known as: adductor canal, Hunter's canal


Some of the material presented in these tables is contained in the book:
MedCharts Anatomy by Thomas R. Gest and Jaye Schlesinger
Published by ILOC, Inc., New York. Copyright 1995.

The content of these tables has been edited for use in this course by Patrick W. Tank, Ph.D.
Copyright 2009, Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences.
Unauthorized use is prohibited.




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