Gross Anatomy

Parotid Gland


Anatomy Tables for Today's Topic


Muscles
Nerves
Arteries
Veins
Lymphatics
Viscera

Muscles

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation Artery Notes
masseter zygomatic arch and zygomatic bone lateral surface of the ramus and angle of the mandible elevates the mandible nerve to the masseter, from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V) masseteric branch of the maxillary a. a powerful chewing muscle

Nerves

Nerve Source Branches Motor Sensory Notes
facial n. pons and medulla: nucleus solitarius of medulla via nervus intermedius (SVA sensory root) from geniculate ganglion; superior salivatory nucleus (GVE preganglionic parasympathetic) of pons via nervus intermedius; facial motor nucleus of pons via motor root greater petrosal n. (preganglionic parasympathetic to pterygopalatine ganglion, postganglionic parasympathetic travels with brs. of maxillary division of V), chorda tympani (SVA taste from anterior 2/3 of the tongue; preganglionic parasympathetic to the submandibular ganglion, postganglionic parasympathetic to the submandibular and sublingual glands), n. to stapedius, posterior auricular n., intraparotid plexus with temporal, zygomatic, buccal, marginal mandibular & cervical brs. stapedius m., stylohyoid m., posterior belly of digastric m., muscles of facial expression; secretomotor to lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual, and mucous glands of the nasal and oral cavities taste (SVA) from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue; part of the skin of the external auditory meatus also known as: CN VII, 7th cranial nerve; exits the posterior cranial fossa by passing into the internal acoustic meatus, goes through the facial canal; motor to muscles of facial expression exits the skull at the stylomastoid foramen
great auricular n. cervical plexus (contributions from the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves C2&C3) mastoid n., auricular n. none skin of the ear and skin below the ear the great auricular n. crosses the superficial surface of the sternocleidomastoid m.

Arteries

Artery Source Branches Supply to Notes
carotid, external common carotid superior thyroid a., ascending pharyngeal a., lingual a., facial a., occipital a., posterior auricular a., maxillary a., superficial temporal a. upper neck, face and scalp external carotid a. is the primary blood supply to the face and superficial head; the maxillary a. and superficial temporal a. are its terminal branches
carotid, common brachiocephalic trunk (right), aortic arch (left) external carotid a., internal carotid a. most of the head and upper neck common carotid a. bifurcates at the level of the superior border of the thyroid cartilage; the internal carotid a. and the external carotid a. are its terminal brs.; the carotid sinus and carotid body are located at the bifurcation
transverse facial superficial temporal a. no named branches parotid gland, masseter m., facial muscles and skin transverse facial a. anastomoses with branches of the buccal, infraorbital and facial aa.
posterior auricular external carotid a. stylomastoid br., auricular br., occipital br. part of the external ear, scalp and deeper structures posterior to the ear posterior auricular and greater occipital share their region of distribution
maxillary external carotid a. deep auricular a., anterior tympanic a., middle meningeal a., inferior alveolar a., masseteric a., posterior deep temporal a., anterior deep temporal a., buccal a., posterior superior alveolar a., infraorbital a., a. of the pterygoid canal, descending palatine a., sphenopalatine a. deep face, infratemporal fossa, tympanic cavity, muscles of mastication maxillary a. may course medial or lateral to the lateral pterygoid m.

Veins

Vein Tributaries Drains Into Regions Drained Notes
auricular, posterior small veins of the subcutaneous tissues behind the ear, stylomastoid v. it unites with the posterior division of the retromandibular v. to form the external jugular region behind the ear posterior auricular v. communicates with the occipital v. behind the ear
jugular, external formed by the joining of the retromandibular and posterior auricular vv.; tributaries: posterior external jugular v., transverse cervical v., suprascapular v., anterior jugular v. subclavian v. head & neck, shoulder external jugular v. contains valves that may not be fully functional
jugular, internal formed at the base of the skull where the sigmoid sinus ends; tributaries: pharyngeal vv.; lingual v., common facial v., sternocleidomastoid v., superior thyroid v, middle thyroid v. brachiocephalic v. brain, cranial cavity, skull, face, viscera of the neck internal jugular is the largest vein of the nead and neck
retromandibular v. formed by the union of the superficial temporal v. and maxillary v. anterior and posterior divisions of the retromandibular v. side of the head and scalp; deep face retromandibular v. is contained within the parotid gland; anterior division unites with the facial v. to form the common facial v.; posterior division unites with the posterior auricular v. to form the external jugular v.
common facial formed by the union of the anterior division of the retromandibular v. and the facial v. internal jugular v. face and anterior scalp common facial v. may receive drainage from the lingual v.
external jugular v. formed by the joining of the retromandibular and posterior auricular vv.; tributaries: posterior external jugular v., transverse cervical v., suprascapular v., anterior jugular v. subclavian v. head & neck, shoulder external jugular v. contains valves that may not be fully functional
internal jugular v. formed at the base of the skull where the sigmoid sinus ends; tributaries: pharyngeal vv.; lingual v., common facial v., sternocleidomastoid v., superior thyroid v, middle thyroid v. brachiocephalic v. brain, cranial cavity, skull, face, viscera of the neck internal jugular is the largest vein of the nead and neck

Lymphatics

Structure Location Afferents from Efferents to Regions drained Notes
parotid nodes, deep on the lateral side of the pharyngeal wall, deep to the parotid gland lymphatic vessels from the ear superior deep cervical nodes external acoustic meatus, auditory tube, middle ear deep parotid nodes are part of the deep cervical chain of nodes
parotid nodes, superficial superficial to the parotid gland and also deep to the parotid fascia anterior auricular nodes superior deep cervical nodes anterior surface of the ear and external acoustic meatus; temporal and frontal regions; eyelids, lacrimal gland cheek and nose superficial parotid nodes are up to 10 in number and may be located superficial or deep to the parotid fascia

Viscera

Organ Location/Description Notes
parotid gland salivary gland located lateral and posterior to the mandibular ramus, beside (para) the ear (oto) largest salivary gland; innervated by postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the otic ganglion via the auriculotemporal n.
parotid duct thick duct that crosses the superficial surface of the masseter m. parotid duct drains the parotid gland through cheek to the oral vestibule near upper 2nd molar tooth


Other Tables of Interest:

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Some of the material presented in these tables is contained in the book:
MedCharts Anatomy by Thomas R. Gest and Jaye Schlesinger
Published by ILOC, Inc., New York. Copyright 1995.

Content of these tables has been edited for use in this course by Patrick W. Tank, Ph.D.
Copyright 2007, Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences.

Unauthorized use is prohibited.