UAMS Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences - Nerves of the Head and Neck

Gross Anatomy


Nerves of the Head and Neck - Listed Alphabetically

Nerve Source Branches Motor Sensory Notes
abducens pons: abducens nucleus no named branches GSE: lateral rectus m. none also known as: CN VI, 6th cranial nerve; passes through the superior orbital fissure
accessory cranial root: medulla - nucleus ambiguus; spinal root: spinal nucleus of the upper cervical spinal cord no named branches GSE: sternocleidomastoid and trapezius mm. none also known as: CN XI, 11th cranial nerve; spinal root enters cranial cavity by passing through the foramen magnum; exits skull by passing through the jugular foramen; accessory n. is motor only; the subtrapezial plexus of nerves receives proprioceptive fibers: for the sternocleidomastoid m. from the ventral primary rami of spinal nn. C2 and C3 - for trapezius via ventral primary rami of C3 and C4
alveolar, anterior superior infraorbital n. dental plexus none maxillary canine and incisor teeth and gingiva; maxillary sinus anterior superior alveolar n. is enclosed in bone its entire length
alveolar, inferior mandibular division of the trigeminal n.(V3) n. to mylohyoid; inferior dental plexus; mental nerve mylohyoid muscle and anterior belly of the digastric m. via n. to mylohyoid teeth of the mandible; skin of the chin inferior alveolar n. passes through the mandibular canal; the mental n. is its terminal branch which emerges through the mental foramen
alveolar, middle superior infraorbital n. dental plexus none maxillary premolar teeth and gingiva; maxillary sinus middle superior alveolar n. is enclosed in bone its entire length
alveolar, posterior superior maxillary n. dental plexus none maxillary molar teeth and gingiva; maxillary sinus posterior superior alveolar n. enters bone by passing through the small foramina on the posterior surface of the maxilla
ansa cervicalis superior root (C1 and C2) and inferior root (C2 and C3) of the ansa cervicalis to infrahyoid muscles omohyoid m., sternohyoid m., sternothyroid m., thyrohyoid m., geniohyoid m. none superior and inferior roots of the ansa cervicalis are also known as the anterior and posterior roots
anterior deep temporal n. mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) no named branches temporalis m. no cutaneous branches a branch of the motor root of CN V; temporalis m. developed from the mesenchyme of the first pharyngeal arch
anterior ethmoidal n. nasociliary n. internal & external nasal brs. none mucous membrane lining the anterior ethmoid air cells and upper anterior part of the nasal cavity; skin of the lower half of the nose anterior ethmoidal n. passes from the orbit into the anterior ethmoidal foramen, passes through the cribriform plate, passes anteriorly on cribriform plate, then exits the cranial cavity through the ethmoid fissure into the nasal cavity
anterior superior alveolar n. infraorbital n. dental plexus none maxillary canine and incisor teeth and gingiva; maxillary sinus anterior superior alveolar n. is enclosed in bone its entire length
auriculotemporal n. mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) parotid brs., articular brs., anterior auricular brs. secretomotor to the parotid gland by carrying postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the otic ganglion; [preganglionic parasympathetic fibers originate in the lesser petrosal br. of the glossopharyngeal n. (IX)] skin of anterior ear and the skin anterosuperior to the ear; part of the external auditory meatus; temporomandibular joint two roots of the auriculotemporal n. encircle the middle meningeal a.
brachial plexus ventral primary rami of C5-8 and T1 dorsal scapular, long thoracic, n. to subclavius, suprascapular, lateral and medial pectoral, medial brachial and antebrachial cutaneous, upper, middle and lower subscapular, musculocutaneous, ulnar, median, axillary, radial muscles of the upper limb, excluding trapezius skin of the upper limb plexus is a latin word meaning "braid"; axons from spinal cord levels C5-T1 are mixed (braided) in the brachial plexus and repackaged into terminal branches so that each branch contains axons from several spinal cord segmental levels
buccal branch of the trigeminal n. mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) no named branches no motor branches skin of the cheek, mucosa lining the cheek not a motor nerve; easily confused with the buccal branch of the facial n.
buccal branches of the facial n. facial n. (VII) no sensory branches zygomaticus major & minor, buccinator, orbicularis oris, levator anguli oris, levator labii superioris & alaque nasi, risorius, procerus, nasalis no sensory branches not a sensory nerve; easily confused with the buccal branch of the trigeminal n.
C1 ventral primary ramus C1 spinal n. contributes to the superior root of the ansa cervicalis; brs. to: rectus capitis anterior and lateralis mm., longus capitis m. rectus capitis anterior and lateralis, longus capitis, omohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid, geniohyoid none C1 contributes to the cervical plexus
C2 ventral primary ramus C2 spinal n. contributes to: superior and inferior roots of the ansa cervicalis, lesser occipital n., great auricular n., transverse cervical n.; brs. to: longus capitis & colli, sternocleidomastoid omohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid, longus capitis and longus colli skin behind the ear and on the neck below the mandible; proprioception from the sternocleidomastoid m. C2 contributes to the cervical plexus
C3 ventral primary ramus C3 spinal n. contributes to: inferior root of the ansa cervicalis, great auricular n., transverse cervical n., supraclavicular nn., phrenic n.; brs. to: longus capitis & colli, scalenus medius, levator scapulae, trapezius omohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid, longus capitis & colli, scalenus medius, levator scapulae, respiratory diaphragm skin of the anterolateral neck; proprioception from the sternocleidomastoid m. and the trapezius m C3 contributes to the cervical plexus
C4 ventral primary ramus C4 spinal n. contributes to: supraclavicular nn., phrenic n.; brs. to: longus colli, scalenus medius, levator scapulae, trapezius longus colli, scalenus medius, levator scapulae, respiratory diaphragm skin of the root of the neck and the upper shoulder; proprioception from the trapezius m. C4 contributes to the cervical plexus
C5 ventral primary ramus C5 spinal n. contributes to: phrenic n., long thoracic n. respiratory diaphragm, scalene mm., muscles of the shoulder and upper arm skin of the ventral arm and ventral forearm joins the ventral primary ramus of C6 to form the superior trunk of the brachial plexus
C6 ventral primary ramus C6 spinal n. contributes to: long thoracic n. scalene mm., muscles of the lower shoulder and arm skin of the lateral side of the upper limb joins the ventral primary ramus of C5 to form the superior trunk of the brachial plexus
C7 ventral primary ramus C7 spinal n. contributes to: long thoracic n. muscles of the lower shoulder, arm forearm skin of the posterior side of the upper limb continues as the middle trunk of the brachial plexus
C8 ventral primary ramus C8 spinal n. no named branches muscles of the forearm and hand skin of the medial side of the upper limb joins the ventral primary ramus of T1 to form the inferior trunk of the brachial plexus
cardiac, sympathetic cervical sympathetic trunk no named branches heart (sympathetic: increases rate and force of contraction, parasympathetic: decreases rate and force of contraction); bronchial tree & lungs via pulmonary plexus heart, bronchial tree and lungs cervical sympathetic trunk usually gives 3 cervical cardiac brs. l (superior, middle and inferior) to the cardiac plexus
cardiac, vagal vagus n. (X) no named branches heart (parasympathetic: decreases rate and force of contraction; sympathetic: increases rate and force of contraction); bronchial tree and lungs via pulmonary plexus heart, bronchial tree and lungs vagus n. has 2 cervical cardiac brs. (superior and inferior) and 1 or more thoracic cardiac brs.
carotid body, n. to glossopharyngeal n. (IX) no named branches none sensory receptors in the carotid body and carotid sinus chemoreception (blood pH) in carotid body; blood pressure receptors in carotid sinus; both located near the bifurcation of the common carotid a.; the vagus n. (X) may share a role in this innervation
carotid plexus, external superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, via the external carotid n. distributes along the brs. of the external carotid artery vascular smooth muscle, arrector pili muscles, sweat glands of face & upper neck none postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers use arteries as roadways to enter the head and neck
carotid plexus, internal superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, via the internal carotid n. most distribute along the brs. of the internal carotid artery, although the deep petrosal n. is an exception because it runs a short course independent of an artery vascular smooth muscle of the brain, orbit, forehead, upper nasal cavity; arrector pili muscles of forehead and anterior scalp; sweat glands of the forehead; dilator pupillae m. none postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers use arteries as roadways to enter the head and neck
carotid, external superior cervical sympathetic ganglion contributes to the external carotid plexus vascular smooth muscle of the internal carotid system of vessels; sweat glands, arrector pili mm. of the skin of the forehead none there may be two or more external carotid nn. that join the external carotid plexus from the superior cervical ganglion
carotid, internal superior cervical sympathetic ganglion contributes to the internal carotid plexus vascular smooth muscle of the external carotid system of vessels; sweat glands, arrector pili mm. of the skin of the face and scalp none internal carotid n. appears to be the upward continuation of the sypathetic trunk
cervical plexus ventral primary rami of spinal nerves C1-C4 brs. to: longus colli & capitis, sternocleidomastoid m., trapezius m., levator scapulae m., scalenus medius m., rectus capitis anterior and lateralis mm.; superior & inferior root of the ansa cervicalis, n. to the thyrohyoid m., n. to the geniohyoid m., lesser occipital n., great auricular n., transverse cervical n., supraclavicular nn. (medial, intermediate and lateral), contributions to the phrenic n. from C3 and C4 longus colli & capitis mm., rectus capitis anterior & lateralis mm., infrahyoid mm., thyrohyoid m., geniohyoid m., respiratory diaphragm skin of the anterolateral neck; skin of the ear and skin behind the ear close association of the supraclavicular nn. to the phrenic n. results in pain from the respiratory diaphragm referred to the shoulder
cervicofacial division facial (VII) buccal br., marginal mandibular br., cervical br. muscles of facial expression of the lower part of the face; platysma m. none cervicofacial division usually forms a loop by communication with the temporofacial division of the facial n.
chorda tympani facial (VII) no named branches secretomotor to the submandibular and sublingual glands (it carries preganglionic parasympathetic axons to the submandibular ganglion) taste to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue chorda tympani joins the lingual nerve in the infratemporal fossa and continues with it to the tongue
ciliary ganglion preganglionic parasympathetic axons arrive via the inferior division of the oculomotor n. (III) postganglionic parasympathetic axons which distribute via short ciliary nn. sphincter pupillae m., ciliary m. of the eye none a parasympathetic ganglion; ciliary ganglion is located on the lateral side of the optic n. near the apex of the orbit; sensory and sympathetic axons pass through the ciliary ganglion without synapse - the sensory root is carried via the nasociliary n.and the sympathetic root arrives in the orbit via the internal carotid a.
ciliary, long nasociliary no named branches none eyeball (GSA) these nerves bypass the ciliary ganglion
ciliary, short ciliary ganglion: sensory root - from the nasociliary n.(a branch of V1); sympathetic root - from the internal carotid plexus; parasympathetic root - from the inferior division of the oculomotor n. (III) multiple short ciliary nn. which leave the ciliary ganglion anteriorly sphincter pupillae & ciliary mm. (parasympathetic), dilator pupillae (sympathetic) eyeball (GSA) short ciliary nn. are mixed nerves which contain sensory and 2 types of autonomic nerve fibers; postganglionic parasympathetic neurons whose axons are located in these nerves have their cell bodies located in the ciliary ganglion
cochlear n. vestibulocochlear n. no named branches none hearing (SSA) exits the posterior cranial fossa by passing into the internal acoustic meatus
cranial nn. nuclei located in the brain, branistem and upper cervical spinal cord 12 pairs: olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, hypoglossal eye muscles, muscles of mastication, middle ear, face, tongue, pharynx, larynx, most suprahyoid muscles, sternocleidomastoid m., trapezius m., smooth muscle of the gut, cardiac muscle, bronchial smooth muscle, salivary, lacrimal and mucous glands in the head and neck; glands of digestive system smell, vision, taste, hearing, balance, general sensation form the skin of the face, sense from viscera of the head, neck, thorax and abdomen (proximal to the splenic flexure) details about each cranial nerve may be found elsewhere in this chart
deep petrosal n. internal carotid plexus no named branches vascular smooth muscle of the mucous membranes of the lower nasal cavity, maxillary sinus and palate none deep petrosal n. joins the greater petrosal n. to form the n. of the pterygoid canal; the deep petrosal n. contains postganglionic sympathetic axons (synapse occurred in the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion)
digastric m., posterior belly, n. to facial n. (VII) no named branches posterior belly of the digastric m. none the anterior belly of the digastric m. is formed by mesenchyme from the 1st pharyngeal arch and is supplied by the n. to the mylohyoid m. (V3)
dorsal scapular n. brachial plexus (br. of C5 ventral primary ramus) no named branches rhomboideus major and minor mm.; levator scapulae m. none dorsal scapular n. passes through the scalenus medius m.
esophageal plexus right and left vagus (X) nn.; thoracic visceral brs. of the sympathetic trunk anterior and posterior vagal trunks preganglionic parasympathetic axons from the vagus n. supply smooth muscle and glands of the thoracic esophagus and abdominal gut and its derivatives proximal to the left colic flexure; postganglionic sympathetic axons from the thoracic visceral brs. supply vascular smooth muscle in the esophageal vessels vagus: GVA from the esophagus and abdominal gut proximal to the left colic flexure; thoracic visceral brs.carry pain from the esophagus during development of the gut, the stomach and esophagus rotate 90° to the right with the result that the left and right vagus nerves mix in the esophageal plexus and emerge as anterior and posterior vagal trunks
ethmoidal, anterior nasociliary n. internal & external nasal brs. none mucous membrane lining the anterior ethmoid air cells and upper anterior part of the nasal cavity; skin of the lower half of the nose anterior ethmoidal n. passes from the orbit into the anterior ethmoidal foramen, passes through the cribriform plate, passes anteriorly on cribriform plate, then exits the cranial cavity through the ethmoid fissure into the nasal cavity
ethmoidal, posterior nasociliary n. no named branches none mucous membrane lining the posterior ethmoid air cells and sphenoid sinus posterior ethmoidal n. exits the orbit by passing through the posterior ethmoid foramen
external carotid n. superior cervical sympathetic ganglion contributes to the external carotid plexus vascular smooth muscle of the internal carotid system of vessels; sweat glands, arrector pili mm. of the skin of the forehead none there may be two or more external carotid nn. that join the external carotid plexus from the superior cervical ganglion
external carotid plexus superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, via the external carotid n. distributes along the brs. of the external carotid artery vascular smooth muscle, arrector pili muscles, sweat glands of face & upper neck none postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers use arteries as roadways to enter the head and neck
facial n. pons and medulla: nucleus solitarius of medulla via nervus intermedius (SVA sensory root) from geniculate ganglion; superior salivatory nucleus (GVE preganglionic parasympathetic) of pons via nervus intermedius; facial motor nucleus of pons via motor root greater petrosal n. (preganglionic parasympathetic to pterygopalatine ganglion, postganglionic parasympathetic travels with brs. of maxillary division of V), chorda tympani (SVA taste from anterior 2/3 of the tongue; preganglionic parasympathetic to the submandibular ganglion, postganglionic parasympathetic to the submandibular and sublingual glands), n. to stapedius, posterior auricular n., intraparotid plexus with temporal, zygomatic, buccal, marginal mandibular & cervical brs. stapedius m., stylohyoid m., posterior belly of digastric m., muscles of facial expression; secretomotor to lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual, and mucous glands of the nasal and oral cavities taste (SVA) from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue; part of the skin of the external auditory meatus also known as: CN VII, 7th cranial nerve; exits the posterior cranial fossa by passing into the internal acoustic meatus, goes through the facial canal; motor to muscles of facial expression exits the skull at the stylomastoid foramen
frontal ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. (V1) supraorbital n., supratrochlear n. none skin of the forehead and the medial part of the upper eyelid; mucous membrane of the frontal sinus the most superior linear structure within the orbit
ganglia, sympathetic chain preganglionic sympathetic fibers arrive via white rami communicantes of ventral primary rami of spinal nerves T1-L2 postganglionic sympathetic fibers depart via gray rami communicantes to all spinal nn.; internal & external carotid nn.; cervical cardiac brs.; thoracic direct visceral brs.; greater, lesser & least thoracic splanchnic nn.; lumbar splanchnic nn.; sacral splanchnic nn. dilator pupillae, vascular smooth muscle, arrector pili muscles, sweat glands, suprarenal medulla, heart, lungs and gut pain from viscera located lateral to the vertebral bodies in the neck, thorax & abdominopelvic cavity; the ganglia plus their interconnecting fibers are also known as the sympathetic trunk; preganglionic cell bodies are located in the intermediolateral gray matter of spinal cord levels T1-L2
ganglion, ciliary preganglionic parasympathetic axons arrive via the inferior division of the oculomotor n. (III) postganglionic parasympathetic axons which distribute via short ciliary nn. sphincter pupillae m., ciliary m. of the eye none a parasympathetic ganglion; ciliary ganglion is located on the lateral side of the optic n. near the apex of the orbit; sensory and sympathetic axons pass through the ciliary ganglion without synapse - the sensory root is carried via the nasociliary n.and the sympathetic root arrives in the orbit via the internal carotid a.
ganglion, geniculate facial n. (VII) (chorda tympani branch) nervus intermedius (SVA sensory root of facial n.) none taste (SVA) from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue a sensory ganglion equivalent in histological structure and function to a dorsal root ganglion; some taste from the palate travels through the greater petrosal n. to the geniculate ganglion; located in the facial canal within the petrous portion of the temporal bone
ganglion, otic preganglionic parasympathetic via the lesser petrosal, from the tympanic n. of the glossopharyngeal n. (IX) postganglionic parasympathetic axons distribute with the parotid brs. of the auriculotemporal n. (from V3) secretomotor to the parotid gland none a parasympathetic ganglion; the otic ganglion hangs off of the mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) inferomedial to the foramen ovale
ganglion, pterygopalatine preganglionic parasympathetic axons arrive via the n. of the pterygoid canal from greater petrosal n. of the facial n (VII); postganglionic sympathetic axons arrive via the n. of the pterygoid canal from the deep petrosal n. postganglionic parasympathetic axons distribute via the greater & lesser palatine nn., nasopalatine n., sphenopalatine n. and zygomatic n. secretomotor to: mucous glands of the palate, nasal cavity, lacrimal gland none a parasympathetic ganglion; the pterygopalatine ganglion hangs off of the maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) within the pterygopalatine fossa; preganglionic axons of the greater petrosal n. synapse here; postganglionic sympathetic axons of the deep petrosal n. pass through the pterygopalatine ganglion without synapsing (they synapse in the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion)
ganglion, semilunar ophthalmic (V1) , maxillary (V2) and mandibular (V3) divisions of the trigeminal n. sensory fibers depart via the trigeminal n. (V) none skin of the face, mucous membranes of the nasal and oral cavities, mucous membrane of the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue (GSA only) a sensory ganglion equivalent in histological structure and function to a dorsal root ganglion; also known as. trigeminal or Gasserian ganglion
ganglion, spiral fibers of the cochlear hair cells cochlear n. portion of the vestibulocochlear n. (VIII) none hearing (SSA) a sensory ganglion of the cochlear part of CN VIII
ganglion, stellate neurons in the intermediolateral cell column of spinal cord level T1 gray rami communicans to spinal nerves C8 and T1 (postganglionic sympathetic); thoracic visceral br. vascular smooth muscle, arrector pili muscle, sweat glands of the C8 & T1 cutaneous distribution on chest & upper limb (C8 and T1 dermatomes); vascular smooth muscle of the lungs pain from lungs a sympathetic ganglion; stellate ganglion is formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical sympathetic ganglion and the T1 ganglion of the sympathetic trunk
ganglion, submandibular preganglionic parasympathetic axons from the chorda tympani (accompanying the lingual n. from the mandibular division of the trigeminal n.) postganglionic parasympathetic axons distribute either directly, or with branches of the lingual n. to the submandibular and sublingual glands secretomotor to the submandibular and sublingual glands and the small glands of the lingual mucosa none a parasympathetic ganglion; submandibular ganglion is suspended from the lingual n. near the deep part of the submandibular gland
geniculate ganglion facial n. (VII) (chorda tympani branch) nervus intermedius (SVA sensory root of facial n.) none taste (SVA) from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue a sensory ganglion equivalent in histological structure and function to a dorsal root ganglion; some taste from the palate travels through the greater petrosal n. to the geniculate ganglion; located in the facial canal within the petrous portion of the temporal bone
geniohyoid m., n. to C1 fibers from the superior root of the ansa cervicalis no named branches geniohyoid m. none nerve to the geniohyoid m. travels with the hypoglossal nerve for a short distance in the superior neck
glossopharyngeal n. medulla: spinal trigeminal nucleus from the superior ganglion (GVA); nucleus solitarius from the inferior ganglion (SVA); nucleus ambiguus (SVE); inferior salivatory nucleus (GVE - preganglionic parasympathetic) tympanic nerve to the tympanic plexus and lesser petrosal n., carotid sinus n., stylopharyngeus brs., pharyngeal brs. SVE: stylopharyngeus; GVE: secretomotor to the parotid gland (preganglionic parasympathetic via the tympanic n. to the lesser petrosal n. to the otic ganglion; postganglionic parasympathetic via the auriculotemporal n.) GVA: carotid body, carotid sinus, pharynx, middle ear; GSA: skin of the external ear; SVA: taste from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue also known as: CN IX, 9th cranial nerve; the glossopharyngeal n. exits the posterior cranial fossa by passing through the jugular foramen;it may penetrate the stylopharyngeus m.
gray ramus communicans cell bodies located in the sympathetic chain ganglia none carries postganglionic sympathetic axons to the spinal nerve; spinal nerve will carry those axons peripherally to the skin, blood vessels, etc. none gray rami communicantes connect the sympathetic chain to spinal nerves at all vertebral levels
great auricular n. cervical plexus (contributions from the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves C2&C3) mastoid n., auricular n. none skin of the ear and skin below the ear the great auricular n. crosses the superficial surface of the sternocleidomastoid m.
greater occipital n. dorsal primary ramus of spinal nerve C2 (medial br.) no named branches posterior neck muscles skin of the posterior surface of the scalp muscles innervated by this nerve develop from epimeres in the embryo
greater palatine n. maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) posterior inferior lateral nasal brs. none mucous membrane of the inferior part of the lateral nasal wall; mucosa of the hard palate greater palatine n. passes through the greater palatine canal and foramen
greater petrosal n. facial (VII) no named branches secretomotor (preganglionic parasympathetic) to: lacrimal gland, mucous glands of the lower nasal cavity, maxillary sinus and palate none greater petrosal n. joins the deep petrosal n. to form the n. of the pterygoid canal; the greater petrosal n. contains: preganglionic parasympathetic axons bound for the pterygopalatine ganglion where they will synapse; it passes through the hiatus of canal of greater petrosal n. in the petrous part of the temporal bone
hypoglossal n. medulla: hypoglossal nucleus no named branches; branches of the ventral primary ramus of spinal nerve C1 are carried by this nerve and are not considered to be branches of the hypoglossal nerve intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue (except the palatoglossus m.) none also known as: CN XII, 12th cranial nerve; the hypoglossal n. exits the posterior cranial fossa by passing through the hypoglossal canal; the superior root of the ansa cervicalis travels with the hypoglossal n. for a short distance
inferior alveolar n. mandibular division of the trigeminal n.(V3) n. to mylohyoid; inferior dental plexus; mental nerve mylohyoid muscle and anterior belly of the digastric m. via n. to mylohyoid teeth of the mandible; skin of the chin inferior alveolar n. passes through the mandibular canal; the mental n. is its terminal branch which emerges through the mental foramen
inferior laryngeal n. recurrent laryngeal br. of the vagus n. (X) no named branches all intrinsic muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid; those muscles are: thyroarytenoid, oblique and transverse arytenoid, posterior and lateral cricoarytenoid, aryepiglottic, thyroepiglottic, vocalis; secretomotor to the mucous membrane of the larynx below the vocal fold mucous membrane of the larynx below the vocal fold inferior laryngeal n. is the continuation of the recurrent laryngeal n., the name change occurs at the cricothyroid articulation
inferior oblique, nerve to inferior branch of the oculomotor n. parasympathetic root to the ciliary ganglion preganglionic parasympathetic supply to the ciliary ganglion for innervation of the sphincter pupillae m. and ciliary m.; inferior oblique m. none parasympathetic root carries GVE (preganglionic parasympathetic axons) to the ciliary ganglion - short ciliary nn. carry the postganglionic parasympathetic axons from the ciliary ganglion to the eyeball
infraorbital n. maxillary division of the trigeminal n.(V2) middle alveolar n., anterior superior alveolar n. none mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus; upper premolar, canine and incisor teeth; maxillary gingiva; skin of the lateral nose, lower eyelid, upper lip and zygomatic region infraorbital n.passes through the infraorbital groove, canal and foramen
infratrochlear n. nasociliary br. of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. (V1) no named branches none skin and conjunctiva of the medial upper and lower eyelids; skin of the lateral surface of the nose infratrochlear n. passes inferior to the trochlea (pulley) of the superior oblique m.
intermediate supraclavicular n. cervical plexus (C3&C4) no named branches none skin of the root of the neck and upper chest, near the mid-clavicle pain from respiratory diaphragm is referred to the shoulder
internal carotid n. superior cervical sympathetic ganglion contributes to the internal carotid plexus vascular smooth muscle of the external carotid system of vessels; sweat glands, arrector pili mm. of the skin of the face and scalp none internal carotid n. appears to be the upward continuation of the sypathetic trunk
internal carotid plexus superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, via the internal carotid n. most distribute along the brs. of the internal carotid artery, although the deep petrosal n. is an exception because it runs a short course independent of an artery vascular smooth muscle of the brain, orbit, forehead, upper nasal cavity; arrector pili muscles of forehead and anterior scalp; sweat glands of the forehead; dilator pupillae m. none postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers use arteries as roadways to enter the head and neck
lacrimal n. ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. (V1) no named branches carries secretomotor axons to the lacrimal gland skin of the lateral portion of the upper eye lid and its associated conjunctiva lacrimal n. carries the postganglionic parasympathetic axons from the zygomaticotemporal br. of the maxillary n. that originate in the pterygopalatine ganglion
laryngeal, inferior recurrent laryngeal br. of the vagus n. (X) no named branches all intrinsic muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid; those muscles are: thyroarytenoid, oblique and transverse arytenoid, posterior and lateral cricoarytenoid, aryepiglottic, thyroepiglottic, vocalis; secretomotor to the mucous membrane of the larynx below the vocal fold mucous membrane of the larynx below the vocal fold inferior laryngeal n. is the continuation of the recurrent laryngeal n., the name change occurs at the cricothyroid articulation
laryngeal, recurrent vagus n. (X) esophageal brs., tracheal brs., cardiac brs., pharyngeal brs., inferior laryngeal n. upper esophagus, lower pharynx, laryngeal mm. (except cricothyroid); smooth muscle of the trachea; secretomotor to mucosal glands in the upper esophagus, lower pharynx, larynx below the vocal fold, trachea; cardiac muscle of the heart (slows heart rate, decreases force of contraction) upper esophagus, lower pharynx, larynx below the vocal folds, GVA from heart right recurrent laryngeal n. loops posteriorly around the right subclavian a.; left recurrent laryngeal n. loops posteriorly around the aortic arch and ligamentum arteriosum; the inferior laryngeal br. supplies all intrinsic muscles of the larynx EXCEPT the cricothyroid m.
laryngeal, superior vagus n. (X) internal br., external br. cricothyroid m., inferior pharyngeal constrictor m.; secretomotor to mucosal glands of the larynx above the vocal folds mucous membrane of the larynx above the vocal folds external br. supplies the cricothyroid m.; all other intrinsic muscles of the larynx are supplied by the recurrent laryngeal n.
lateral supraclavicular n. cervical plexus (C3&C4) no named branches none skin of the root of the neck and upper shoulder pain from respiratory diaphragm is referred to the shoulder
lesser occipital n. ventral primary ramus of spinal nerve C2 no named branches none skin behind the ear lesser occipital n. arises from the cervical plexus
lesser palatine n. maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) no named branches none mucous membrane of the soft palate and posterior hard palate lesser palatine n. passes through the greater palatine canal and lesser palatine foramen
lesser petrosal n. tympanic nerve, from the glossopharyngeal n. (IX) otic ganglion secretomotor (preganglionic parasympathetic) for the parotid gland none lesser petrosal n. synapses in the otic ganglion and postganglionic axons distribute to the parotid gland by joining the auriculotemporal n.
lingual n. mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) no named branches none general sense from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue and floor of the mouth lingual n. is joined by the chorda tympani (taste and preganglionic parasympathetic) from the facial n. in the infratemporal fossa; the submandibular ganglion hangs from the lingual nerve in the paralingual space
long ciliary n. nasociliary no named branches none eyeball (GSA) these nerves bypass the ciliary ganglion
mandibular division of the trigeminal n. trigeminal ganglion; motor root arises from the pons meningeal br., medial pterygoid and lateral pterygoid nn., masseteric n., anterior and posterior deep temporal nn., buccal n., auriculotemporal n., lingual n., inferior alveolar n. SVE: mylohyoid m., anterior belly of the digastric m.; tensor tympani m., tensor veli palatini m.; muscles of mastication (temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid and lateral pterygoid) GSA: skin of the lower lip and jaw extending superiorly above level of the ear; mucous membrane of the tongue and floor of the mouth; lower teeth and gingiva of the mandibular alveolar arch also known as: V3; passes through the foramen ovale to exit the middle cranial fossa; the otic ganglion is associated with the medial side of V3 below the foramen ovale; the auriculotemporal n. carries postganglionic parasympathetic axons to the parotid gland; the submandibular ganglion is associated withe the lingual n. near the submandibular gland; postganglionic parasympathetics from the submandibular ganglion supply the submandibular gland and the sublingual gland
mandibular, marginal facial n. (cervicofacial division) no named branches orbicularis oris m., depressor anguli oris m., depressor labii inferioris m., mentalis m. none branches of the facial nerve innervate muscles derived from the mesenchyme of the second pharygeal arch
masseteric n. mandibular division of the trigeminal n. no named branches masseter m. none masseteric n. passes over the mandibular notch to reach the deep surface of the masseter m.
maxillary division of the trigeminal n. trigeminal ganglion meningeal br., posterior superior alveolar n., pharyngeal, posterior superior medial and lateral nasal brs., nasopalatine n., greater and lesser palatine nn., zygomatic n., infraorbital n. none GSA: skin of the upper lip, cheek, lower eyelid; mucous membrane of the palate; teeth and gingiva of the maxillary alveolar arch; the mucous membrane lining most of the nasal cavity; the mucous membrane lining the maxillary sinus also known as: V2; maxillary division of the trigeminal n. passes through the foramen rotundum to enter the pterygopalatine fossa; the pterygopalatine ganglion is associated with it in the pterygopalatine fossa; postganglionic parasympathetic fibers distribute with branches of the maxillary division to mucous glands of the nasal cavity and palate; the zygomatic n. & its brs. carry postganglionic parasympathetic axons to the orbit to reach the lacrimal n. and lacrimal gland
medial supraclavicular n. cervical plexus (C3&C4) no named branches none skin of the root of the neck and upper chest, anteriorly pain from respiratory diaphragm is referred to the shoulder
mental n. inferior alveolar n. no named branches none skin of the chin the lower lip mental n. passes through the mental foramen
middle superior alveolar infraorbital n. dental plexus none maxillary premolar teeth and gingiva; maxillary sinus middle superior alveolar n. is enclosed in bone its entire length
mylohyoid, n. to inferior alveolar n., a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) no named branches mylohyoid m., anterior belly of the digastric m. none n. to mylohyoid arises near the lingula of the mandible; course within the mylohyoid groove of the mandible
nasociliary n. ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. (V1) communicating br. to the ciliary ganglion, long ciliary n., anterior and posterior ethmoidal nn., infratrochlear n. none eyeball, skin of the nose and medial sides of the eyelids; conjunctiva of the medial sides of the eyelids; mucous membranes of the upper nasal cavity, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses the distribution of this nerve is indicated by its name - nasociliary
nasopalatine n. maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) no named branches none mucous membrane of the nasal septum; mucous membrane of the anterior portion of the palate nasopalatine n. innervates the mucosa overlying the primary palate (development); it passes through two openings in bone: sphenopalatine foramen and incisive canal
nervus intermedius pons & medulla: nucleus solitarius of medulla (SVA sensory root) from geniculate ganglion; superior salivatory nucleus (GVE preganglionic parasympathetic) of pons joins with the motor root to form the facial n. (VII); its fibers are contained in the greater petrosal n. and the chorda tympani secretomotor to the lacrimal gland and mucous glands of the lower nasal cavity; secretomotor to the mucosa of the maxillary sinus and palate (synapse occurs at the pterygopalatine ganglion); secretomotor to submandibular and sublingual glands (synapse occurs at the submandibular ganglion) taste from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue nervus intermedius occupies an intermediate position between the motor root of VII and cranial n. VIII when they enter the internal acoustic meatus
occipital, greater dorsal primary ramus of spinal nerve C2 (medial br.) no named branches posterior neck muscles skin of the posterior surface of the scalp muscles innervated by this nerve develop from epimeres in the embryo
occipital, lesser ventral primary ramus of spinal nerve C2 no named branches none skin behind the ear lesser occipital n. arises from the cervical plexus
occipitalis tertius dorsal primary ramus of spinal nerve C3 (medial br.) no named branches posterior neck muscles skin of the posterior surface of the neck muscles innervated by this nerve develop from epimeres in the embryo
oculomotor n. oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain (extraocular muscles); accessory oculomotor nucleus (nucleus of Edinger-Westphal - preganglionic parasympathetic) superior br., inferior br. GSE: superior br.: levator palpebrae superioris m., superior rectus m.; inferior br: medial rectus m., inferior rectus m., inferior oblique m.; GVE: ciliary m. & sphincter pupillae m. (preganglionic parasympathetic axons go to the ciliary ganglion via the parasympathetic root, postganglionic parasympathetic go from the ciliary ganglion to the eyeball via short ciliary nn.) none also known as: CN III; oculomotor n. passes through the superior orbital fissure to exit the middle cranial fossa
of the pterygoid canal formed by the union of the greater petrosal n. (preganglionic parasympathetic) and the deep petrosal n.(postganglionic sympathetic) ends in the pterygopalatine ganglion (parasympathetic) secretomotor (parasympathetic) to: lacrimal gland and mucous glands of nasal cavity and maxillary sinus; sympathetic innervation to vascular smooth muscle in the same region none contains: preganglionic axons of the greater petrosal n. bound for pterygopalatine ganglion where they will synapse; postganglionic sympathetic axons of the deep petrosal n. which will pass through the pterygopalatine ganglion without synapsing
olfactory n. the filaments of the bipolar olfactory epithelial cells constitute the olfactory n. second order olfactory nerve cell bodies located in the olfactory bulb none smell (SVA) also known as: CN I, 1st cranial n.; multiple olfactory filaments pass through the cribriform plate to exit the anterior cranial fossa and synapse in the olfactory bulb; the olfactory tract carries the signal from the bulb to olfactory cortex of the forebrain
ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. trigeminal ganglion meningeal br., lacrimal n., frontal n., nasociliary n. none (GSA) skin of the forehead, upper eyelid and nose; mucous membrane of the upper nasal cavity, frontal sinus, ethmoid air cells and sphenoid sinuses also known as: V1; the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. passes through the superior orbital fissure to exit the middle cranial fossa; the lacrimal n. receives postganglionic parasympathetic axons to the lacrimal gland from the zygomaticotemporal br. of the zygomatic n.
optic n. ganglion layer of the retina to the forebrain none none vision (SSA) also known as: CN II, 2nd cranial nerve; the course of the optic nerve is: through the optic canal to the optic chiasma, then the optic tract to the lateral geniculate body and optic radiation
otic ganglion preganglionic parasympathetic via the lesser petrosal, from the tympanic n. of the glossopharyngeal n. (IX) postganglionic parasympathetic axons distribute with the parotid brs. of the auriculotemporal n. (from V3) secretomotor to the parotid gland none a parasympathetic ganglion; the otic ganglion hangs off of the mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) inferomedial to the foramen ovale
palatine, greater maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) posterior inferior lateral nasal brs. none mucous membrane of the inferior part of the lateral nasal wall; mucosa of the hard palate greater palatine n. passes through the greater palatine canal and foramen
palatine, lesser maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) no named branches none mucous membrane of the soft palate and posterior hard palate lesser palatine n. passes through the greater palatine canal and lesser palatine foramen
petrosal, deep internal carotid plexus no named branches vascular smooth muscle of the mucous membranes of the lower nasal cavity, maxillary sinus and palate none deep petrosal n. joins the greater petrosal n. to form the n. of the pterygoid canal; the deep petrosal n. contains postganglionic sympathetic axons (synapse occurred in the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion)
petrosal, greater facial (VII) no named branches secretomotor (preganglionic parasympathetic) to: lacrimal gland, mucous glands of the lower nasal cavity, maxillary sinus and palate none greater petrosal n. joins the deep petrosal n. to form the n. of the pterygoid canal; the greater petrosal n. contains: preganglionic parasympathetic axons bound for the pterygopalatine ganglion where they will synapse; it passes through the hiatus of canal of greater petrosal n. in the petrous part of the temporal bone
petrosal, lesser tympanic nerve, from the glossopharyngeal n. (IX) otic ganglion secretomotor (preganglionic parasympathetic) for the parotid gland none lesser petrosal n. synapses in the otic ganglion and postganglionic axons distribute to the parotid gland by joining the auriculotemporal n.
pharyngeal plexus motor contributed by the vagus n. (X); sensory contributed by the glossopharyngeal n. (IX), vasomotor contributed by the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion no named branches vagus: all muscles of the pharynx except stylopharyngeus; sympathetic: smooth muscle in the pharyngeal vasculature glossopharyngeal: mucous membrane lining the pharynx the muscles of the pharyngeal wall are skeletal m. derived from the mesenchyme of the 4th pharyngeal arch
phrenic n. ventral primary rami of spinal nerves C3-C5 (cervical plexus) no named branches skeletal muscle of the respiratory diaphragm diaphragmatic pleura; some fibers contributed to the pericardium and to the adjacent mediastinal and costal pleurae phrenic n. crosses the anterior surface of the anterior scalene m.
plexus, brachial ventral primary rami of C5-8 and T1 dorsal scapular, long thoracic, n. to subclavius, suprascapular, lateral and medial pectoral, medial brachial and antebrachial cutaneous, upper, middle and lower subscapular, musculocutaneous, ulnar, median, axillary, radial muscles of the upper limb, excluding trapezius skin of the upper limb plexus is a latin word meaning "braid"; axons from spinal cord levels C5-T1 are mixed (braided) in the brachial plexus and repackaged into terminal branches so that each branch contains axons from several spinal cord segmental levels
plexus, cervical ventral primary rami of spinal nerves C1-C4 brs. to: longus colli & capitis, sternocleidomastoid m., trapezius m., levator scapulae m., scalenus medius m., rectus capitis anterior and lateralis mm.; superior & inferior root of the ansa cervicalis, n. to the thyrohyoid m., n. to the geniohyoid m., lesser occipital n., great auricular n., transverse cervical n., supraclavicular nn. (medial, intermediate and lateral), contributions to the phrenic n. from C3 and C4 longus colli & capitis mm., rectus capitis anterior & lateralis mm., infrahyoid mm., thyrohyoid m., geniohyoid m., respiratory diaphragm skin of the anterolateral neck; skin of the ear and skin behind the ear close association of the supraclavicular nn. to the phrenic n. results in pain from the respiratory diaphragm referred to the shoulder
plexus, esophageal right and left vagus (X) nn.; thoracic visceral brs. of the sympathetic trunk anterior and posterior vagal trunks preganglionic parasympathetic axons from the vagus n. supply smooth muscle and glands of the thoracic esophagus and abdominal gut and its derivatives proximal to the left colic flexure; postganglionic sympathetic axons from the thoracic visceral brs. supply vascular smooth muscle in the esophageal vessels vagus: GVA from the esophagus and abdominal gut proximal to the left colic flexure; thoracic visceral brs.carry pain from the esophagus during development of the gut, the stomach and esophagus rotate 90° to the right with the result that the left and right vagus nerves mix in the esophageal plexus and emerge as anterior and posterior vagal trunks
plexus, external carotid superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, via the external carotid n. distributes along the brs. of the external carotid artery vascular smooth muscle, arrector pili muscles, sweat glands of face & upper neck none postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers use arteries as roadways to enter the head and neck
plexus, internal carotid superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, via the internal carotid n. most distribute along the brs. of the internal carotid artery, although the deep petrosal n. is an exception because it runs a short course independent of an artery vascular smooth muscle of the brain, orbit, forehead, upper nasal cavity; arrector pili muscles of forehead and anterior scalp; sweat glands of the forehead; dilator pupillae m. none postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers use arteries as roadways to enter the head and neck
plexus, pharyngeal motor contributed by the vagus n. (X); sensory contributed by the glossopharyngeal n. (IX), vasomotor contributed by the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion no named branches vagus: all muscles of the pharynx except stylopharyngeus; sympathetic: smooth muscle in the pharyngeal vasculature glossopharyngeal: mucous membrane lining the pharynx the muscles of the pharyngeal wall are skeletal m. derived from the mesenchyme of the 4th pharyngeal arch
posterior deep temporal n. mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) no named branches temporalis m. no cutaneous branches a branch of the motor root of CN V; temporalis m. developed from the mesenchyme of the first pharyngeal arch
posterior ethmoidal n. nasociliary n. no named branches none mucous membrane lining the posterior ethmoid air cells and sphenoid sinus posterior ethmoidal n. exits the orbit by passing through the posterior ethmoid foramen
posterior superior alveolar n. maxillary n. dental plexus none maxillary molar teeth and gingiva; maxillary sinus posterior superior alveolar n. enters bone by passing through the small foramina on the posterior surface of the maxilla
pterygopalatine ganglion preganglionic parasympathetic axons arrive via the n. of the pterygoid canal from greater petrosal n. of the facial n (VII); postganglionic sympathetic axons arrive via the n. of the pterygoid canal from the deep petrosal n. postganglionic parasympathetic axons distribute via the greater & lesser palatine nn., nasopalatine n., sphenopalatine n. and zygomatic n. secretomotor to: mucous glands of the palate, nasal cavity, lacrimal gland none a parasympathetic ganglion; the pterygopalatine ganglion hangs off of the maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) within the pterygopalatine fossa; preganglionic axons of the greater petrosal n. synapse here; postganglionic sympathetic axons of the deep petrosal n. pass through the pterygopalatine ganglion without synapsing (they synapse in the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion)
ramus communicans, gray cell bodies located in the sympathetic chain ganglia none carries postganglionic sympathetic axons to the spinal nerve; spinal nerve will carry those axons peripherally to the skin, blood vessels, etc. none gray rami communicantes connect the sympathetic chain to spinal nerves at all vertebral levels
ramus communicans, white cell bodies located in the lateral horn gray matter of spinal cord levels T1-L2; none axons contained within white rami communicantes will synapse on postganglionic cell bodies that will ultimately innervate the skin, viscera, glands, blood vessels, etc. pain from viscera is carried back to the spinal cord through the white ramus communicans white rami communicantes connect the sympathetic chain to spinal nerves at vertebral levels T1-L2; carries preganglionic sympathetic axons
recurrent laryngeal n. vagus n. (X) esophageal brs., tracheal brs., cardiac brs., pharyngeal brs., inferior laryngeal n. upper esophagus, lower pharynx, laryngeal mm. (except cricothyroid); smooth muscle of the trachea; secretomotor to mucosal glands in the upper esophagus, lower pharynx, larynx below the vocal fold, trachea; cardiac muscle of the heart (slows heart rate, decreases force of contraction) upper esophagus, lower pharynx, larynx below the vocal folds, GVA from heart right recurrent laryngeal n. loops posteriorly around the right subclavian a.; left recurrent laryngeal n. loops posteriorly around the aortic arch and ligamentum arteriosum; the inferior laryngeal br. supplies all intrinsic muscles of the larynx EXCEPT the cricothyroid m.
semilunar ganglion ophthalmic (V1) , maxillary (V2) and mandibular (V3) divisions of the trigeminal n. sensory fibers depart via the trigeminal n. (V) none skin of the face, mucous membranes of the nasal and oral cavities, mucous membrane of the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue (GSA only) a sensory ganglion equivalent in histological structure and function to a dorsal root ganglion; also known as. trigeminal or Gasserian ganglion
short ciliary n. ciliary ganglion: sensory root - from the nasociliary n.(a branch of V1); sympathetic root - from the internal carotid plexus; parasympathetic root - from the inferior division of the oculomotor n. (III) multiple short ciliary nn. which leave the ciliary ganglion anteriorly sphincter pupillae & ciliary mm. (parasympathetic), dilator pupillae (sympathetic) eyeball (GSA) short ciliary nn. are mixed nerves which contain sensory and 2 types of autonomic nerve fibers; postganglionic parasympathetic neurons whose axons are located in these nerves have their cell bodies located in the ciliary ganglion
spiral ganglion fibers of the cochlear hair cells cochlear n. portion of the vestibulocochlear n. (VIII) none hearing (SSA) a sensory ganglion of the cochlear part of CN VIII
stellate ganglion neurons in the intermediolateral cell column of spinal cord level T1 gray rami communicans to spinal nerves C8 and T1 (postganglionic sympathetic); thoracic visceral br. vascular smooth muscle, arrector pili muscle, sweat glands of the C8 & T1 cutaneous distribution on chest & upper limb (C8 and T1 dermatomes); vascular smooth muscle of the lungs pain from lungs stellate ganglion is formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical sympathetic ganglion and the T1 ganglion of the sympathetic trunk
submandibular ganglion preganglionic parasympathetic axons from the chorda tympani (accompanying the lingual n. from the mandibular division of the trigeminal n.) postganglionic parasympathetic axons distribute either directly, or with branches of the lingual n. to the submandibular and sublingual glands secretomotor to the submandibular and sublingual glands and the small glands of the lingual mucosa none a terminal parasympathetic ganglion; submandibular ganglion is suspended from the lingual n. near the deep part of the submandibular gland
suboccipital n. dorsal primary ramus of spinal nerve C1 no named branches muscles of the suboccipital triangle: rectus capitis posterior major m., rectus capitis posterior minor m., obliquus capitis superior m., obliquus capitis inferior m. no cutaneous branches spinal nerve C1 has NO cutaneous distribution
superior laryngeal n. vagus n. (X) internal br., external br. cricothyroid m., inferior pharyngeal constrictor m.; secretomotor to mucosal glands of the larynx above the vocal folds mucous membrane of the larynx above the vocal folds external br. supplies the cricothyroid m.; all other intrinsic muscles of the larynx are supplied by the recurrent laryngeal n.
supraclavicular, intermediate cervical plexus (C3&C4) no named branches none skin of the root of the neck and upper chest, near the mid-clavicle pain from respiratory diaphragm is referred to the shoulder
supraclavicular, lateral cervical plexus (C3&C4) no named branches none skin of the root of the neck and upper shoulder pain from respiratory diaphragm is referred to the shoulder
supraclavicular, medial cervical plexus (C3&C4) no named branches none skin of the root of the neck and upper chest, anteriorly pain from respiratory diaphragm is referred to the shoulder
supraorbital n. frontal n, from the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. (V1) medial and lateral brs. none skin of the forehead; mucous membrane of the frontal sinus supraorbital nerve passes through the supraorbital foramen (notch)
supratrochlear n. frontal n, from the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. (V1) no named branches none skin of the medial forehead and the medial part of the upper eyelid; associated conjunctiva supratrochlear n. passes superior to the trochlea (pulley) of the superior oblique m.
sympathetic chain ganglia, cervical preganglionic sympathetic fibers arrive via white rami communicantes of ventral primary rami of spinal nerves T1-T5 postganglionic sympathetic depart via gray rami communicans to cervical spinal nn.; internal and external carotid nn.; cervical cardiac brs. dilator pupillae m.; vascular smooth muscle; arrector pili muscles and sweat glands of head and neck; heart and lungs pain from viscera located parallel to the vertebral bodies in the neck; there are no white rami communicantes at cervical levels
temporal, anterior deep mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) no named branches temporalis m. no cutaneous branches a branch of the motor root of CN V; temporalis m. developed from the mesenchyme of the first pharyngeal arch
temporal, posterior deep mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) no named branches temporalis m. no cutaneous branches a branch of the motor root of CN V; temporalis m. developed from the mesenchyme of the first pharyngeal arch
temporofacial division of the facial n. facial n. temporal, zygomatic and buccal brs. muscles of facial expression of the upper part of the face; frontalis m., anterior and superior auricularis mm. none temporofacial division of the facial n. usually forms a loop by communication anteriorly with the cervicofacial division
to carotid body glossopharyngeal n. (IX) no named branches none sensory receptors in the carotid body and carotid sinus chemoreception (blood pH) in carotid body; blood pressure receptors in carotid sinus; both located near the bifurcation of the common carotid a.; the vagus n. (X) may share a role in this innervation
to digastric m., posterior belly facial n. (VII) no named branches posterior belly of the digastric m. none the anterior belly of the digastric m. is formed by mesenchyme from the 1st pharyngeal arch and is supplied by the n. to the mylohyoid m. (V3)
to geniohyoid m. C1 fibers from the superior root of the ansa cervicalis no named branches geniohyoid m. none nerve to the geniohyoid m. travels with the hypoglossal nerve for a short distance in the superior neck
transverse cervical n. cervical plexus (C2 and C3) no named branches none skin of the anterior surface of the neck transverse cervical n. penetrates the platysma m. but does not innervate it
trigeminal n. motor root arises from the trigeminal motor nucleus in the pons (SVE); sensory part arises from the trigeminal ganglion (GSA) and projects into the pons to the primary sensory nucleus of V or more inferiorly to the nucleus of the spinal root of V (medulla and upper spinal cord) ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular divisions SVE: anterior belly of the digastric m., mylohyoid m., tensor veli palatini m., tensor tympani m.; muscles of mastication: temporalis m., masseter m., lateral pterygoid m., medial pterygoid m. skin of the face; mucous membranes of the nasal and oral cavities; general sensation (GSA) to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue also known as: CN V, 5th cranial nerve; some brs. carry pre- or postganglionic parasympathetic fibers; the trigeminal n. divides into three divisions at the trigeminal ganglion; SVE supplies muscles of 1st pharyngeal arch origin
trochlear n. trochlear nucleus of the midbrain no named branches superior oblique m. of the eye (GSE) none also known as: CN IV, 4th cranial nerve; the trochlear n. passes through the superior orbital fissure to exit the middle cranial fossa; it is the smallest cranial nerve and the only cranial nerve to arise from dorsum of brainstem
tympanic n. glossopharyngeal n. tympanic plexus, which gives rise to the lesser petrosal n. secretomotor (preganglionic parasympathetic axons which will synapse in the otic ganglion) to the parotid gland mucous membrane lining the middle ear cavity tympanic n. passes from the inferior ganglion of CN IX through the tympanic canaliculus to reach the middle ear
vagus n. medulla: dorsal motor nucleus (GVE preganglionic parasympathetic); inferior ganglion (GVA); nucleus ambiguus (SVE); superior ganglion (GSA); inferior ganglion(SVA) auricular br., pharyngeal br., superior laryngeal, superior and inferior cervical cardiac brs., recurrent laryngeal n., thoracic cardiac brs., brs. to the pulmonary plexus, brs. to the esophageal plexus, anterior and posterior vagal trunks SVE: intrinsic muscles of the larynx, pharynx (except stylopharyngeus), and palate (except tensor veli palatini); GVE: smooth muscle of the respiratory tree & gut (proximal to the left colic flexure), heart; secretomotor: mucous glands of the larynx, respiratory tree, pharynx and gut; secretomotor to digestive glands GSA: skin of the external auditory meatus; GVA: viscera of head, neck, thorax & abdomen proximal to the left colic flexure; SVA: taste from the epiglottis also known as: CN X, 10th cranial nerve; the vagus n. passes through the jugular foramen to exit the posterior cranial fossa; vagus means "wanderer" in reference to its extensive distribution to the body cavities
vestibular n. pons and medulla no named branches none balance/proprioception (SSA) vestibular n. is part of the vestibulocochlear n.
vestibulocochlear n. pons & medulla: vestibular nuclei from the vestibular ganglion of the semicircular ducts; cochlear nuclei in the inferior cerebellar peduncle divides within the temporal bone into vestibular and cochlear parts none vestibular: balance/proprioception (SSA); cochlear: hearing (SSA) also known as: CN VIII, 8th cranial nerve; auditory nerve; passes into the internal auditory meatus
white ramus communicans cell bodies located in the lateral horn gray matter of spinal cord levels T1-L2; none axons contained within white rami communicantes will synapse on postganglionic cell bodies that will ultimately innervate the skin, viscera, glands, blood vessels, etc. pain from viscera is carried back to the spinal cord through the white ramus communicans white rami communicantes connect the sympathetic chain to spinal nerves at vertebral levels T1-L2; carries preganglionic sympathetic axons
zygomatic n. maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) zygomaticofacial & zygomaticotemporal carries secretomotor fibers skin of the face lateral and superior to the orbit zygomatic n. carries postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion to the lacrimal gland (via the communicating br. of the zygomaticotemporal n. which joins the lacrimal n.)
zygomaticofacial n. zygomatic from the maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) no named branches none skin of face lateral to the orbit zygomaticofacial n. passes through the zygomaticofacial foramen
zygomaticotemporal n. zygomatic from the maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) communicating br. carries secretomotor fibers skin of face superolateral to the orbit zygomaticotemporal n. carries postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion to the lacrimal gland (via the communicating br. which joins the lacrimal n.)


Some of the material presented in these tables is contained in the book:
MedCharts Anatomy by Thomas R. Gest and Jaye Schlesinger
Published by ILOC, Inc., New York. Copyright 1995.

The content of these tables has been edited for use in this course by Patrick W. Tank, Ph.D.
Copyright 2009, Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences.
Unauthorized use is prohibited.




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