UAMS Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences - Joints of the Lower Limb

Gross Anatomy

Joints of the Lower Limb

Joints and Ligaments of the Pelvis
Joints and Ligaments of the Lower Limb


Joints and Ligaments of the Pelvis

Joint or Ligament Description Significance
pubic symphysis symphysis midline joint uniting the bodies of the pubic bones
sacroiliac joint synovial, plane connects ala of sacrum to auricular surface of ilium; fibrous capsule reinforced by dorsal & ventral sacroiliac ligaments
sacrospinous ligament syndesmosis connects ischial spine to lateral surface of sacrum & coccyx; together with sacrotuberous ligament, converts greater & lesser ischiadic (sciatic) notches into greater & lesser ischiadic (sciatic) foramina
sacrotuberous ligament syndesmosis connects ischial tuberosity to lateral surface of sacrum & coccyx; together with sacrospinous ligament, converts greater & lesser ischiadic (sciatic) notches into greater & lesser ischiadic (sciatic) foramina
iliolumbar ligament syndesmosis connects transverse process of L5 to iliac crest

Joints and Ligaments of the Lower Limb

Joint or Ligament Description Significance
acetabular labrum fibrocartilage fibrocartilage forming rim of acetabulum; deepens the acetabulum
transverse acetabular ligament bridges the acetabular notch; forms a bridge over the artery in the ligament of the femoral head (ligamentum capitis femoris)
ligament of the femoral head intracapsular ligament connecting transverse acetabular ligament with fovea capitis femoris; also known as: ligamentum capitis femoris
ligamentum capitis femoris intracapsular ligament connecting transverse acetabular ligament with fovea capitis femoris; also known as: ligament of the femoral head
pubofemoral ligament capsular ligament of hip joint connecting superior pubic ramus to medial surface of femoral neck
iliofemoral ligament capsular ligament of the hip joint connecting anterior inferior iliac spine to intertrochanteric line
ischiofemoral ligament capsular ligament of the hip joint connecting body of ischium to posterior femoral neck
zona orbicularis fibers of hip joint capsule encircling femoral neck
hip joint synovial acetabulum of os coxae articulates with femoral head; reinforced by capsular ligaments (iliofemoral, pubofemoral, ischiofemoral, zona orbicularis) and containing acetabular labrum & ligamentum capitis femoris
knee joint synovial femoral condyles articulate with tibial condyles; reinforced by intracapsular ligaments (anterior cruciate & posterior cruciate), a capsular ligament (tibial collateral ligament), and an extracapsular ligament (fibular collateral ligament); contains medial & lateral menisci
patellar ligament tendon connects quadriceps femoris muscle group to the tibial tuberosity; patella is a sesamoid bone within the quadriceps tendon
tibial collateral ligament capsular ligament of the knee joint connecting medial epicondyle of femur with medial surface of medial tibial condyle; its attachment to the medial meniscus is clinically relevant
fibular collateral ligament extracapsular ligament, not part of the fibrous capsule of the knee; connects lateral epicondyle of femur with fibular head
anterior cruciate ligament intracapsular ligament connecting anterior aspect of intercondylar eminence of tibia with medial surface of lateral femoral condyle
posterior cruciate ligament intracapsular ligament connecting posterior aspect of intercondylar eminence of tibia with lateral surface of medial femoral condyle
medial meniscus fibrocartilage intra-articular disc within knee joint between medial femoral condyle & medial tibial condyle; attached to tibial collateral ligament, coronary ligament, & intercondylar eminence
lateral meniscus fibrocartilage intra-articular disc within knee joint between lateral femoral condyle & lateral tibial condyle; attached to coronary ligament & intercondylar eminence
posterior meniscofemoral ligament intracapsular ligament connects posterior part of lateral meniscus with lateral surface of medial femoral condyle
suprapatellar bursa bursa superior extension of the synovial membrane of the knee joint; passes deep to the quadriceps tendon
prepatellar bursa bursa subcutaneous bursa overlying patella
infrapatellar bursa, superficial bursa subcutaneous bursa overlying patellar tendon
infrapatellar bursa, deep bursa bursa lying between patellar tendon & tibia
interosseous membrane of leg syndesmosis connects shafts of tibia & fibula
interosseous ligaments of foot intracapsular ligaments connecting adjacent tarsal bones
ankle joint synovial, hinge articulation between distal end of tibia, medial malleolus, lateral malleolus and talus; reinforced by deltoid ligament (anterior tibiotalar, tibionavicular, tibiocalcaneal, posterior tibiotalar), anterior talofibular, calcaneofibular & posterior talofibular ligaments
anterior tibiofibular ligament connects distal ends of tibia & fibula anteriorly
posterior tibiofibular ligament connects distal ends of tibia & fibula posteriorly
deltoid ligament connects medial malleolus with talus, navicular & calcaneus; its four parts arranged from anterior to posterior: anterior tibiotalar, tibionavicular, tibiocalcaneal, posterior tibiotalar; also known as: medial ligament of ankle
anterior tibiotalar ligament part of deltoid ligament connecting medial malleolus with talus
posterior tibiotalar ligament part of deltoid ligament connecting medial malleolus with talus posteriorly
tibiocalcaneal ligament part of deltoid ligament connecting medial malleolus with sustentaculum tali
tibionavicular ligament part of deltoid ligament connecting medial malleolus with navicular
anterior talofibular ligament connects lateral malleolus with talus anterolaterally
posterior talofibular ligament connects lateral malleolus with talus posterolaterally
calcaneofibular ligament connects lateral malleolus with calcaneus
plantar calcaneonavicular ligament syndesmosis connects sustentaculum tali with inferior surface of navicular; also known as: spring ligament
plantar calcaneocuboid ligament syndesmosis connects calcaneus & cuboid inferiorly
long plantar ligament syndesmosis connects calcaneus with cuboid & bases of lateral 3 metatarsals
tarsometatarsal joints synovial reinforced by dorsal & plantar ligaments
metatarsophalangeal joints (5) synovial chondyloid joint connecting head of metatarsal with proximal phalanx; reinforced by collateral ligaments
longitudinal arch of the foot combination of synovial joints & syndesmoses passes from calcaneus to talus to navicular to cuneiforms to metatarsals; supported by plantar calcaneonavicular ligament & many other ligaments; supported by tendons of tibialis anterior & tibialis posterior mm.
transverse arch of the foot combination of synovial joints & syndesmoses passes through distal row of tarsal bones; supported by shape of bones and many ligaments; supported by tendons of fibularis longus & tibialis anterior & tibialis posterior mm.

 


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Some of the material presented in these tables is contained in the book:
MedCharts Anatomy by Thomas R. Gest and Jaye Schlesinger
Published by ILOC, Inc., New York. Copyright 1995.

Content of these tables has been edited for use in this course by Patrick W. Tank, Ph.D.
Copyright 2009, Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences.

Unauthorized use is prohibited.