UAMS Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences - Arteries of the Head and Neck

Gross Anatomy


Arteries of the Head and Neck - Arranged Alphabetically

Artery Source Branches Supply to Notes
alveolar, anterior superior infraorbital a. dental brs., mucosal brs. maxillary incisor and canine teeth; part of the maxillary sinus anterior superior alveolar a. is located between the inner and outer tables of bone of the maxilla
alveolar, inferior maxillary a. lingual br., mylohyoid a., dental brs., mental a. mandibular teeth and gingiva; mandible; mylohyoid m. inferior alveolar a. runs with the inferior alveolar nerve within the mandibular canal
alveolar, middle superior infraorbital a. dental brs., mucosal brs. maxillary premolar teeth; part of the maxillary sinus middle superior alveolar a. is located between the inner and outer tables of bone of the maxilla
alveolar, posterior superior maxillary a. dental brs., mucosal brs. maxillary molar teeth; part of the maxillary sinus posterior superior alveolar a. enters the maxilla in the infratemporal fossa
angular facial a. no named branches orbicularis oculi m. and lacrimal sac angular a. is the terminal branch of the facial a.
anterior cerebral internal carotid a. anterior communicating a., medial frontobasal a., polar frontal a., callosomarginal a., precuneal a. medial and inferior portions of the frontal lobe; medial side of the parietal lobe; corpus callosum and part of the limbic lobe; olfactory bulb and tract; optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract the anterior communicating a. unites the two anterior cerebral aa. across the midline
anterior communicating anterior cerebral a. perforating aa. an anastomotic connection anterior communicating a. is a short vessel of anastomosis which crosses the midline to join the paired anterior cerebral aa.; it is part of the Circle of Willis
anterior deep temporal maxillary a. no named branches anterior part of temporalis m. and surrounding deep tissues anterior deep temporal a. branches in the infratemporal fossa and runs deep to temporalis m.
anterior ethmoidal ophthalmic a. anterior meningeal a., anterior septal br., anterior lateral nasal br. anterior ethmoidal air cells, frontal paranasal sinus, dura mater in the anterior cranial fossa, nasal mucosa, olfactory nerves anterior ethmoidal a. leaves the orbit through the anterior ethmoidal foramen, then runs forward on the cribriform plate
anterior inferior cerebellar basilar a. labyrinthine (usually) pons (motor nucleus of cranial nerve V, chief sensory nucleus of cranial nerve V, abducens nucleus, facial nucleus, superior salivatory nucleus); cerebellum; inner ear shares its region of supply with branches of the basilar a.
anterior radicular they arise as multiple branches of several vessels (vertebral, posterior intercostal, lumbar, and lateral sacral aa.) they accompany the ventral rootlets to reach the spinal cord meninges; spinal cord; spinal nerve; ventral rootlets anterior radicular aa. anastomose with the anterior spinal a.
anterior spinal contributions received from several arteries (vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar, lateral sacral aa.) pial arterial plexus meninges; spinal cord; medulla (dorsal motor nucleus of cranial nerve X, nucleus ambiguus, spinal accessory nucleus and hypoglossal nucleus) anterior spinal a. anastomoses with the anterior radicular brs. of the spinal rami of the vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar and lateral sacral aa.
anterior superior alveolar infraorbital a. dental brs., mucosal brs. maxillary incisor and canine teeth; part of the maxillary sinus anterior superior alveolar a. is located between the inner and outer tables of bone of the maxilla
anterior tympanic maxillary a. no named branches middle ear anterior tympanic a. passes through the petrotympanic fissure along with the chorda tympani n.
aortic arch the continuation of the ascending aorta brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid a., left subclavian a. the entire body except the heart aortic arch continues as the descending thoracic aorta; the fibrous ligamentum arteriosum connects to the inferior surface of the aortic arch and it marks the location of the fetal ductus arteriosus aortic arch continues as the descending thoracic aorta
ascending cervical inferior thyroid a. unnamed muscular branches deep muscles of the neck ascending cervical a. ascends on the anterior surface of the anterior scalene m. beside the phrenic n.
ascending palatine facial a. no named branches superior pharyngeal constrictor, soft palate, palatine tonsil ascending palatine a. shares supply of the tonsil bed with 4 other aa. (see also: tonsillar br. of the facial a., palatine br. of the ascending pharyngeal a., tonsillar br. of the dorsal lingual a., tonsillar br. of the descending palatine a.)
ascending pharyngeal external carotid a. pharyngeal brs., inferior tympanic a., posterior meningeal a. pharynx, meninges ascending pharyngeal a. arises from the medial side of the external carotid a. close to the birfurcation
auricular, deep maxillary a. no named branches external auditory meatus, tympanic membrane deep auricular a. is small and difficult to dissect
auricular, posterior external carotid a. stylomastoid br., auricular br., occipital br. part of the external ear, scalp and deeper structures posterior to the ear posterior auricular and greater occipital share their region of distribution
basilar formed by the joining of the two vertebral aa. pontine brs., anterior inferior cerebellar a., superior cerebellar a., two posterior cerebral aa. (terminal brs.) pons (motor nucleus of cranial nerve V, chief sensory nucleus of cranial nerve V, abducens nucleus, facial nucleus, superior salivatory nucleus); oculomotor nucleus; nucleus of Edinger-Westphal; cerebellum; posterior cerebrum basilar a. contributes blood to the cerebral arterial circle
brachiocephalic trunk aortic arch right common carotid a., right subclavian a. right side of the head and neck; right upper limb and right side of the chest wall there is only one brachiocephalic trunk
buccal maxillary a. no named branches cheek and associated muscles buccal a. runs with the buccal branch of CN V
caroticotympanic internal carotid a. no named branches tympanic cavity caroticotympanic a. courses through the petrous portion of the temporal bone
carotid, common brachiocephalic trunk (right), aortic arch (left) external carotid a., internal carotid a. most of the head and upper neck common carotid a. bifurcates at the level of the superior border of the thyroid cartilage; the internal carotid a. and the external carotid a. are its terminal brs.; the carotid sinus and carotid body are located at the bifurcation
carotid, external common carotid a. superior thyroid a., ascending pharyngeal a., lingual a., facial a., occipital a., posterior auricular a., maxillary a., superficial temporal a. upper neck, face and scalp external carotid a. is the primary blood supply to the face and superficial head; the maxillary a. and superficial temporal a. are its terminal branches
carotid, internal common carotid a. none in the neck; in the head: ophthalmic a., posterior communicating a., anterior cerebral a., middle cerebral a. brain; eye and orbit; forehead internal carotid a. is the primary blood supply to the brain; it anastomoses with the vertebral aa. and the contralateral internal carotid a. in the cerebral arterial circle (of Willis); anterior and middle cerebral aa. are the terminal brs. of the internal carotid a.
central, of retina ophthalmic a. superior nasal br., inferior nasal br., superior temporal br., inferior temporal br. retina central a. of the retina is the sole blood supply to the retina; it has no significant collateral circulation and blockage of this vessel leads to blindness; its branches are viewed in a funduscopic exam
cerebellar, anterior inferior basilar a. labyrinthine a. (usually) pons (motor nucleus of cranial nerve V, chief sensory nucleus of cranial nerve V, abducens nucleus, facial nucleus, superior salivatory nucleus); cerebellum; inner ear anterior inferior cerebella a. shares its region of supply with branches of the basilar a.
cerebellar, posterior inferior vertebral a. posterior spinal a. part of cerebellum; medulla (cochlear nucleus, vestibular nucleus, dorsal motor nucleus of cranial nerve X, nucleus ambiguus) posterior inferior cerebellar a. shares its region of supply with the vertebral a. and anterior spinal a. (watershed region)
cerebellar, superior basilar a. no named branches upper cerebellum; trochlear nucleus there may be more than one superior cerebellar a. arising from the basilar a. on each side
cerebral, anterior internal carotid a. anterior communicating a., medial frontobasal a., polar frontal a., callosomarginal a., precuneal a. medial and inferior portions of the frontal lobe; medial side of the parietal lobe; corpus callosum and part of the limbic lobe; olfactory bulb and tract; optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract the anterior communicating a. unites the two anterior cerebral aa. across the midline
cerebral arterial circle an anastomotic circle of blood vessels formed by portions of the following vessels: posterior cerebral aa. (2); posterior communicating aa. (2); internal carotid aa. (2); anterior cerebral aa. (2); anterior communicating a. this is an anastomotic loop; major named vessels connect here, but there are no named branches of the arterial circle brain and midbrain also known as: arterial circle of Willis
cerebral, middle internal carotid a. lateral frontobasal a.; prefrontal sulcal a.; precentral sulcal a.; central sulcal a.; anterior parietal a.; posterior parietal a.; anterior, middle and posterior temporal aa. frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, especially on their lateral surfaces the middle cerebral a. is the direct continuation of the internal carotid a.
cerebral, posterior basilar a. posterior cerebral a.; anterior and posterior temporal brs.; medial occipital a. part of the brainstem (oculomotor nucleus, nucleus of Edinger-Westphal, trochlear nucleus); medial and inferior portions of the temporal lobe; occipital lobe the two posterior cerebral aa. are the terminal brs. of the basilar a.
cervical, ascending inferior thyroid a. unnamed muscular branches deep muscles of the neck ascending cervical a. ascends on the anterior surface of the anterior scalene m. beside the phrenic n.
cervical, deep costocervical trunk unnamed muscular branches deep muscles of the posterior neck deep cervical a. anastomoses with the occipital a. near the occipital bone
cervical, transverse thyrocervical trunk unnamed muscular branches, possibly the dorsal scapular a. trapezius muscle and surrounding tissues transverse cervical a. gives rise to the dorsal scapular a. ~30% of the time
choroidal internal carotid a. no named branches choroid plexus; optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract choroidal a. follows the optic tract
ciliary, anterior muscular brs. of the ophthalmic a. no named branches anterior part of eyeball anterior ciliary aa. course deep to the conjunctiva to reach the region surrounding the iris
ciliary, posterior ophthalmic a. no named branches eyeball posterior ciliary aa. may be classified as short (supplying the posterior eyeball) and lone (supplying the anterior eyeball); short and long posterior ciliary aa. are identical in their size and course external to the eyeball
common carotid brachiocephalic trunk (right), aortic arch (left) external carotid a., internal carotid a. most of the head and upper neck common carotid a. bifurcates at the level of the superior border of the thyroid cartilage; the internal carotid a. and the external carotid a. are its terminal brs.; the carotid sinus and carotid body are located at the bifurcation
communicating, anterior anterior cerebral a. perforating aa. an anastomotic connection anterior communicating a. is a short vessel of anastomosis which crosses the midline to join the paired anterior cerebral aa.; it is part of the Circle of Willis
communicating, posterior internal carotid a. perforating aa. an anastomotic connection a vessel of anastomosis which connects the internal carotid a. to the posterior cerebral a.; part of the cerebral arterial circle (of Willis)
costocervical trunk subclavian a., 2nd part deep cervical a., highest intercostal a. deep muscles of the posterior neck; posterior ends of the first 2 intercostal spaces costocervical trunk is located between the anterior scalene m. and the middle scalene m.; it arches posteriorly over the cervical parietal pleura
cricothyroid superior thyroid a. no named branches cricothyroid m., inferior pharyngeal constrictor m. cricothyroid a. travels with the external br. of the superior laryngeal n.
deep cervical costocervical trunk unnamed muscular branches deep muscles of the posterior neck deep cervical a. anastomoses with the occipital a. near the occipital bone
descending palatine maxillary a. greater palatine a., lesser palatine a. palate descending palatine a. accompanies the greater palatine n. within the palatine canal
dorsal lingual lingual a. no named branches posterior tongue, palatine tonsil, soft palate dorsal lingual a. is only one of five arteries that supply the tonsil bed
dorsal nasal ophthalmic a. no named branches dorsum of the nose dorsal nasal a. anastomoses with the angular a.
dorsal scapular subclavian a., 3rd part unnamed muscular branches levator scapulae m., rhomboideus major m., rhomboideus minor m. dorsal scapular a. anastomoses with the suprascapular a. and the subscapular a. to form the scapular anastomosis; dorsal scapular a is a branch of the transverse cervical a. in ~30% of cases
ethmoidal, anterior ophthalmic a. anterior meningeal a., anterior septal br., anterior lateral nasal br. anterior ethmoidal air cells, frontal paranasal sinus, dura mater in the anterior cranial fossa, nasal mucosa, olfactory nerves anterior ethmoidal a. leaves the orbit through the anterior ethmoidal foramen, then runs forward on the cribriform plate
ethmoidal, posterior ophthalmic a. no named branches posterior ethmoidal air cells; olfactory nerves posterior ethmoidal a. leaves the orbit through the posterior ethmoidal foramen
external carotid common carotid superior thyroid a., ascending pharyngeal a., lingual a., facial a., occipital a., posterior auricular a., maxillary a., superficial temporal a. upper neck, face and scalp external carotid a. is the primary blood supply to the face and superficial head; the maxillary a. and superficial temporal a. are its terminal branches
facial external carotid a. ascending palatine a., tonsilar br., submental a., superior labial a., inferior labial a., lateral nasal a., angular a. lower part of the palatine tonsil, submandibular gland, facial muscles and fascia the angular branch of the facial a. anastomoses with the ophthalmic a.
facial, transverse superficial temporal a. no named branches parotid gland, masseter m., facial muscles and skin transverse facial a. anastomoses with branches of the buccal, infraorbital and facial aa.
greater palatine descending palatine a. no named branches hard palate, palatine glands, palatine mucosa greater palatine a. accompanies the greater palatine n., it is endangered by anesthetic injections for dental procedures
inferior alveolar maxillary a. lingual br., mylohyoid a., dental brs., mental a. mandibular teeth and gingiva; mandible; mylohyoid m. inferior alveolar a. runs with the inferior alveolar nerve within the mandibular canal
inferior labial facial a. no named branches skin, muscles, fasciae and mucosa of the lower lip inferior labial a. shares its region of distribution with branches of the mental a.
inferior laryngeal inferior thyroid a. no named branches internal part of the inferior larynx inferior laryngeal a. accompanies the inferior laryngeal n.
inferior thyroid thyrocervical trunk ascending cervical a., inferior laryngeal a., esophageal brs., tracheal brs., glandular brs. thyroid gland, lower larynx, upper trachea, upper esophagus, deep neck muscles inferior thyroid a. gives rise to the ascending cervical a. as it arches medially
internal carotid common carotid a. none in the neck; in the head: ophthalmic a., posterior communicating a., anterior cerebral a., middle cerebral a. brain; eye and orbit; forehead internal carotid a. is the primary blood supply to the brain; it anastomoses with the vertebral aa. and the contralateral internal carotid a. in the cerebral arterial circle (of Willis); anterior and middle cerebral aa. are the terminal brs. of the internal carotid a.
infraorbital maxillary a. anterior superior alveolar a., middle superior alveolar a. maxillary sinus, maxillary incisors, canine and premolar teeth, skin of the cheek below the orbit, mucosa over the maxillary alveolar arch and the adjacent cheek infraorbital a. is one of four terminal branches of the maxillary a. (see also: descending palatine a., sphenopalatine a., posterior superior alveolar a.)
labial, inferior facial a. no named branches skin, muscles, fasciae and mucosa of the lower lip inferior labial a. shares its region of distribution with branches of the mental a.
labial, superior facial a. septal br. skin, muscles, fasciae and mucosa of the upper lip, lower part of the anterior end of the nasal septum superior labial a. supplies the orbicularis oris m. and the levator labii superioris m.
labyrinthine anterior inferior cerebellar a. (or basilar a.) no named branches internal ear labyrinthine a. accompanies cranial nerves VII and VIII through the internal acoustic meatus
lacrimal ophthalmic a. lateral palpebral aa. (2) lacrimal gland, lateral sides of the eyelids lacrimal a. accompanies the lacrimal n.
laryngeal, inferior inferior thyroid a. no named branches internal part of the inferior larynx inferior laryngeal a. accompanies the inferior laryngeal n.
laryngeal, superior superior thyroid a. no named branches internal aspect of the superior larynx superior laryngeal a. penetrates the thyrohyoid membrane in company with the internal br. of the superior laryngeal n.
lateral nasal facial a. no named branches lateral side of the nose lateral nasal a. anastomoses with the dorsal nasal a.
lateral palpebral lacrimal a. superior br., inferior br. lateral sides of the upper and lower eyelids the 2 lateral palpebral aa. anastomose with the two medial palpebral aa. to form the superior and inferior palpebral arches
lesser palatine descending palatine a. no named branches muscles of the soft palate, mucosa and glands of the soft palate, upper part of the tonsil bed lesser palatine a. is endangered by anesthetic injections for dental procedures
lingual external carotid a. suprahyoid br., dorsal lingual brs., deep lingual a., sublingual a. tongue, suprahyoid muscles, palatine tonsil lingual a. is the 2nd branch off of the anterior side of the external carotid a.; it may arise in common with the facial a.
lingual, deep lingual a. no named branches anterior tongue deep lingual a. is the terminal br. of the lingual a.
lingual, dorsal lingual a. no named branches posterior tongue, palatine tonsil, soft palate dorsal lingual a. is only one of five arteries that supply the tonsil bed
masseteric maxillary a. no named branches masseter m. masseteric a. passes through the mandibular notch to enter the deep surface of the masseter m.
maxillary external carotid a. deep auricular a., anterior tympanic a., middle meningeal a., inferior alveolar a., masseteric a., posterior deep temporal a., anterior deep temporal a., buccal a., posterior superior alveolar a., infraorbital a., a. of the pterygoid canal, descending palatine a., sphenopalatine a. deep face, infratemporal fossa, tympanic cavity, muscles of mastication maxillary a. may course medial or lateral to the lateral pterygoid m.
medial palpebral ophthalmic a. superior br., inferior br. medial aspects of the upper and lower eyelids the 2 medial palpebral aa. anastomose with the two lateral palpebral aa. to form the superior & inferior palpebral arches
meningeal, middle maxillary a. frontal br., parietal br., petrous br., superior tympanic br. most of the dura mater (approx. 80%), bones of the cranial vault middle meningeal a. passes through the foramen spinosum; it may be torn by a fracture at the pterion; it is encircled by the auriculotemporal n.
mental inferior alveolar a. no named branches skin, superficial fascia and facial mm. of the chin and lower lip mental a.passes through the mental foramen; it anastomoses with the inferior labial a.; it accompanies the mental n.
middle cerebral internal carotid a. lateral frontobasal a.; prefrontal sulcal a.; precentral sulcal a.; central sulcal a.; anterior parietal a.; posterior parietal a.; anterior, middle and posterior temporal aa. frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, especially on their lateral surfaces the middle cerebral a. is the direct continuation of the internal carotid a.
middle meningeal maxillary a. frontal br., parietal br., petrous br., superior tympanic br. most of the dura mater (approx. 80%), bones of the cranial vault middle meningeal a. passes through the foramen spinosum; it may be torn by a fracture at the pterion; it is encircled by the auriculotemporal n.
middle superior alveolar infraorbital a. dental brs., mucosal brs. maxillary premolar teeth; part of the maxillary sinus middle superior alveolar a. is located between the inner and outer tables of bone of the maxilla
middle temporal superficial temporal a. no named branches temporalis m. middle temporal a. anastomoses with the posterior br. of the deep temporal a.
mylohyoid inferior alveolar a. no named branches mylohyoid m. mylohyoid a. accompanies the mylohyoid n. to the mylohyoid m.; a rare artery because it enters the superficial surface of its target muscle
nasal, dorsal ophthalmic a. no named branches dorsum of the nose dorsal nasal a. anastomoses with the angular a.
nasal, lateral facial a. no named branches lateral side of the nose lateral nasal a. anastomoses with the dorsal nasal a.
occipital external carotid a. sternocleidomastoid brs., auricular br., mastoid br., descending br., occipital brs. lateral neck, posterior neck, posterior scalp occipital a. anastomoses with the deep cervical a.; it courses with the greater occipital nerve on the posterior surface of the head
ophthalmic internal carotid a. central retinal a., lacrimal a., muscular brs., anterior ethmoidal a., posterior ethmoidal a., medial palpebral a., supraorbital a., supratrochlear a., dorsal nasal a. optic nerve, optic chiasm optic tract, retina, extraocular mm., eyelids, forehead, ethmoidal air cells, lateral nasal wall, dorsum of the nose ophthalmic a. provides the only artery to the retina (central retinal a.)
palatine, ascending facial a. no named branches superior pharyngeal constrictor, soft palate, palatine tonsil ascending palatine a. shares supply of the tonsil bed with 4 other aa. (see also: tonsillar br. of the facial a., palatine br. of the ascending pharyngeal a., tonsillar br. of the dorsal lingual a., tonsillar br. of the descending palatine a.)
palatine, descending maxillary a. greater palatine a., lesser palatine a. palate descending palatine a. accompanies the greater palatine n. within the palatine canal
palatine, greater descending palatine a. no named branches hard palate, palatine glands, palatine mucosa greater palatine a. accompanies the greater palatine n., it is endangered by anesthetic injections for dental procedures
palatine, lesser descending palatine a. no named branches muscles of the soft palate, mucosa and glands of the soft palate, upper part of the tonsil bed lesser palatine a. is endangered by anesthetic injections for dental procedures
palpebral, lateral lacrimal a. superior br., inferior br. lateral sides of the upper and lower eyelids the 2 lateral palpebral aa. anastomose with the two medial palpebral aa. to form the superior and inferior palpebral arches
palpebral, medial ophthalmic a. superior br., inferior br. medial aspects of the upper and lower eyelids the 2 medial palpebral aa. anastomose with the two lateral palpebral aa. to form the superior & inferior palpebral arches
pharyngeal, ascending external carotid pharyngeal brs., inferior tympanic, posterior meningeal pharynx arises from the medial side of the external carotid a. close to the birfurcation
posterior auricular external carotid a. stylomastoid br., auricular br., occipital br. part of the external ear, scalp and deeper structures posterior to the ear posterior auricular and greater occipital share their region of distribution
posterior cerebral basilar a. posterior cerebral a.; anterior and posterior temporal brs.; medial occipital a. part of the brainstem (oculomotor nucleus, nucleus of Edinger-Westphal, trochlear nucleus); medial and inferior portions of the temporal lobe; occipital lobe the two posterior cerebral aa. are the terminal brs. of the basilar a.
posterior communicating internal carotid a. perforating aa. an anastomotic connection a vessel of anastomosis which connects the internal carotid a. to the posterior cerebral a.; part of the cerebral arterial circle (of Willis)
posterior deep temporal maxillary a. no named branches posterior part of the temporalis m. posterior deep temporal a. branches in the infratemporal fossa and runs deep to temporalis m.
posterior ethmoidal ophthalmic a. no named branches posterior ethmoidal air cells; olfactory nerves posterior ethmoidal a. leaves the orbit through the posterior ethmoidal foramen
posterior inferior cerebellar vertebral a. posterior spinal a. part of cerebellum; medulla (cochlear nucleus, vestibular nucleus, dorsal motor nucleus of cranial nerve X, nucleus ambiguus) posterior inferior cerebellar a. shares its region of supply with the vertebral a. and anterior spinal a. (watershed region)
posterior radicular they arise as multiple branches of several vessels (vertebral, posterior intercostal, lumbar, and lateral sacral aa.) no named branches meninges; spinal cord; spinal nerve; dorsal rootlets posterior radicular aa. accompany the dorsal rootlets; they anastomose with the posterior spinal aa.
posterior septal sphenopalatine a. (several small brs.) no named branches posterior aspect of the nasal septum posterior septal a. supplies the mucous membrane of the nasal septum
posterior spinal contributions received from several arteries (posterior inferior cerebellar, vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar, lateral sacral aa.) pial arterial plexus spinal cord, especially the dorsal columns; medulla (nucleus cuneatus and nucleus gracilis) paired; posterior spinal aa. anastomose with the posterior radicular brs. of the spinal rami of the vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar and lateral sacral aa.
posterior superior alveolar maxillary a. dental brs., mucosal brs. maxillary molar teeth; part of the maxillary sinus posterior superior alveolar a. enters the maxilla in the infratemporal fossa
quadrigeminal posterior cerebral no named branches trochlear nerve; corpora quadrigemina blockage of the quadrigeminal a. results in paralysis of the superior oblique m. of the eye
radicular, anterior they arise as multiple branches of several vessels (vertebral, posterior intercostal, lumbar, and lateral sacral aa.) they accompany the ventral rootlets to reach the spinal cord meninges; spinal cord; spinal nerve; ventral rootlets anterior radicular aa. anastomose with the anterior spinal a.
radicular, great anterior the spinal br. of the lower posterior intercostal a., subcostal a., or upper lumbar a., usually on left no named branches lower spinal cord great anterior radicular a. anastomoses with the anterior spinal a. at lower thoracic or upper lumbar spinal cord levels
radicular, posterior they arise as multiple branches of several vessels (vertebral, posterior intercostal, lumbar, and lateral sacral aa.) no named branches meninges; spinal cord; spinal nerve; dorsal rootlets posterior radicular aa. accompany the dorsal rootlets; they anastomose with the posterior spinal aa.
sphenopalatine maxillary a. posterior lateral nasal brs., posterior septal brs. posterolateral nasal wall, posteroinferior nasal septum, hard palate behind the maxillary incisor teeth sphenopalatine a. accompanies the nasopalatine n.
spinal, anterior contributions received from several arteries (vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar, lateral sacral aa.) pial arterial plexus meninges; spinal cord; medulla (dorsal motor nucleus of cranial nerve X, nucleus ambiguus, spinal accessory nucleus and hypoglossal nucleus) the anterior spinal a. anastomoses with the anterior radicular brs. of the spinal rami of the vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar and lateral sacral aa.
spinal, posterior contributions received from several arteries (posterior inferior cerebellar, vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar, lateral sacral aa.) pial arterial plexus spinal cord, especially the dorsal columns; medulla (nucleus cuneatus and nucleus gracilis) paired; posterior spinal aa. anastomose with the posterior radicular brs. of the spinal rami of the vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar and lateral sacral aa.
stylomastoid posterior auricular a. no named branches tympanic cavity, mastoid air cells stylomastoid br. of the posterior auricular a. passes through the stylomastoid foramen in company with the facial n.
subclavian brachiocephalic a. (right), aortic arch (left) 1st part: vertebral a., thyrocervical trunk, internal thoracic a.; 2nd part: costocervical trunk; 3rd part: dorsal scapular a. (70%) neck, brain, spinal cord, thyroid gland, larynx, shoulder, chest muscles, upper limb subclavian a. is continuous with the axillary a., the name change occurs at the lateral border of the first rib; anterior scalene muscle passes anterior to the subclavian a., dividing it into 3 parts
sublingual lingual a. no named branches mylohyoid m., sublingual gland, floor of the mouth sublingual a. is one of three branches of the lingual a. (see also: dorsal lingual a., deep lingual a.)
submental facial a. no named branches muscles, skin and fascia under the chin; submandibular gland submental a. supplies the submandibular gland and the mylohyoid m. in addition to the skin and superficial fascia
superficial temporal external carotid a. transverse facial a.; anterior auricular brs.; zygomatico-orbital a.; middle temporal a.; frontal br.; parietal br. scalp of the lateral side of the head; lateral face; temporalis m. superficial temporal a. and maxillary a. are the terminal branches of the external carotid a.
superior cerebellar basilar a. no named branches upper cerebellum; trochlear nucleus there may be more than one superior cerebellar a. arising from the basilar a. on each side
superior labial facial a. septal br. skin, muscles, fasciae and mucosa of the upper lip, lower part of the anterior end of the nasal septum superior labial a. supplies the orbicularis oris m. and the levator labii superioris m.
superior laryngeal superior thyroid a. no named branches internal aspect of the superior larynx superior laryngeal a. penetrates the thyrohyoid membrane in company with the internal br. of the superior laryngeal n.
superior thyroid external carotid a. infrahyoid br., sternocleidomastoid br., superior laryngeal a., cricothyroid br., glandular brs. thyroid gland, upper part of the larynx, infrahyoid mm., sternocleidomastoid m. superior thyroid a. is usually the first branch of the external carotid a.
supraorbital ophthalmic a. no named branches muscles, skin and fascia of the forehead supraorbital a. accompanies the supraorbital n.
suprascapular thyrocervical trunk muscular supraspinatus & infraspinatus, shoulder joint anastomoses with the circumflex scapular a. and the dorsal scapular a. to form the scapular anastomosis
supratrochlear ophthalmic a. no named branches muscles, skin and fascia of the medial forehead supratrochlear a. accompanies the supratrochlear n.
temporal, anterior deep maxillary a. no named branches anterior part of temporalis m. and surrounding deep tissues anterior deep temporal a. branches in the infratemporal fossa and runs deep to temporalis m.
temporal, middle superficial temporal a. no named branches temporalis m. middle temporal a. anastomoses with the posterior br. of the deep temporal a.
temporal, posterior deep maxillary a. no named branches posterior part of the temporalis m. posterior deep temporal a. branches in the infratemporal fossa and runs deep to temporalis m.
temporal, superficial external carotid a. transverse facial a.; anterior auricular brs.; zygomatico-orbital a.; middle temporal a.; frontal br.; parietal br. scalp of the lateral side of the head; lateral face; temporalis m. superficial temporal a. and maxillary a. are the terminal branches of the external carotid a.
thoracic, internal subclavian a. (1st part) pericardiocophrenic a., perforating brs., anterior intercostal aa., mediastinal brs., thymic brs., musculophrenic a., superior epigastric a. mediastinum, anterior thoracic wall, anterior abdominal wall, respiratory diaphragm internal thoracic a. is also known as: internal mammary a.
thyrocervical trunk subclavian a., 1st part inferior thyroid a., transverse cervical a., suprascapular a. lower neck, posterior shoulder, thyroid gland thyrocervical trunk does not give rise to the ascending cervical a.- it is a branch of the inferior thyroid a.
thyroid, inferior thyrocervical trunk ascending cervical a., inferior laryngeal a., esophageal brs., tracheal brs., glandular brs. thyroid gland, lower larynx, upper trachea, upper esophagus, deep neck muscles inferior thyroid a. gives rise to the ascending cervical a. as it arches medially
thyroid, superior external carotid a. infrahyoid br., sternocleidomastoid br., superior laryngeal a., cricothyroid br., glandular brs. thyroid gland, upper part of the larynx, infrahyoid mm., sternocleidomastoid m. superior thyroid a. is usually the first branch of the external carotid a.
thyroidea ima brachiocephalic a. or aortic arch no named branches isthmus of the thyroid gland, upper trachea thyroidea ima a. is present in 10% of individuals; it is clinically significant because it is a midline artery in the region of tracheostomy; ima means "lowest"
transverse cervical thyrocervical trunk unnamed muscular branches, possibly the dorsal scapular a. trapezius muscle and surrounding tissues transverse cervical a. gives rise to the dorsal scapular a. ~30% of the time
transverse facial superficial temporal a. no named branches parotid gland, masseter m., facial muscles and skin transverse facial a. anastomoses with branches of the buccal, infraorbital and facial aa.
trunk, brachiocephalic aortic arch right common carotid a., right subclavian a. right side of the head and neck; right upper limb and right side of the chest wall there is only one brachiocephalic trunk
trunk, costocervical subclavian a., 2nd part deep cervical a., highest intercostal a. deep muscles of the posterior neck; posterior ends of the first 2 intercostal spaces costocervical trunk is located between the anterior scalene m. and the middle scalene m.; it arches posteriorly over the cervical parietal pleura
trunk, thyrocervical subclavian a., 1st part inferior thyroid a., transverse cervical a., suprascapular a. lower neck, posterior shoulder, thyroid gland thyrocervical trunk does not give rise to the ascending cervical a.- it is a branch of the inferior thyroid a.
tympanic, anterior maxillary a. no named branches middle ear anterior tympanic a. passes through the petrotympanic fissure along with the chorda tympani n.
vertebral subclavian a.(1st part) spinal brs., muscular brs., anterior spinal a., posterior inferior cerebellar a., medullary brs., meningeal brs., basilar a. deep neck, cervical spinal cord, spinal cord; medulla (dorsal motor nucleus of cranial nerve X, nucleus ambiguus, spinal accessory nucleus and hypoglossal nucleus) vertebral a. anastomoses with the internal carotid a. in the cerebral arterial circle (of Willis); it courses through the transverse foramina of vertebrae C1-C6


Some of the material presented in these tables is contained in the book:
MedCharts Anatomy by Thomas R. Gest and Jaye Schlesinger
Published by ILOC, Inc., New York. Copyright 1995.

The content of these tables has been edited for use in this course by Patrick W. Tank, Ph.D.
Copyright 2009, Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences.
Unauthorized use is prohibited.



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