UAMS Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences - Muscles of the Pelvis and Perineum

Gross Anatomy


Muscles of the Pelvis and Perineum - Listed Alphabetically

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation Artery Notes
anal sphincter, external perineal body or central tendinous point of the perineum encircles the anal canal; superficial fibers attach to the coccyx constricts the anal canal inferior rectal nerves (from the pudendal nerve) inferior rectal a. skeletal (voluntary) muscle, as contrasted with sphincter ani internus, which is smooth (involuntary) muscle; the external anal sphincter is considered part of the pelvic diaphragm
anal sphincter, internal encircles the anal canal encircles the anal canal constricts the anal canal parasympathetic fibers from S4 middle rectal a. smooth muscle (involuntary), as contrasted with sphincter ani externus, which is skeletal muscle (voluntary)
bulbospongiosus, in female perineal body and fascia of the bulb of the vestibule perineal membrane and corpus cavernosum of the clitoris compresses the vestibular bulb and constricts the vaginal orifice deep branch of the perineal nerve (from pudendal nerve) perineal a. skeletal muscle
bulbospongiosus, in male central tendinous point and the midline raphe on the bulb of the penis perineal membrane, dorsal surface of the corpus spongiosum, deep penile fascia compresses the bulb of the penis, compresses the spongy urethra deep branch of the perineal nerve (from pudendal nerve) perineal a. expels the last drops of urine from urethra; expels semen during ejaculation
coccygeus ischial spine side of the coccyx and lower sacrum elevates the pelvic floor branches of the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S3-S4 inferior gluteal a. coccygeus and levator ani combined form the pelvic diaphragm
deep transverse perineus medial surface of the ischial ramus contralateral muscle and perineal body/central tendinous point fixes and stabilizes the perineal body/central tendinous point deep branch of perineal nerve from pudendal nerve internal pudendal a. superficial and deep transverse perineus muscles are separated by the perineal membrane
detruser of bladder smooth muscle in the wall of the urinary bladder fascicles are arranged roughly in three layers compresses the urinary bladder parasympathetic nerve fibers from the pelvic splanchnic nerves (S2-S4 spinal cord levels) superior and inferior vesical aa. muscles in the neck of bladder must contract and cause the internal urethral orifice to open before the detruser muscle can void the bladder
iliococcygeus arcus tendineus levator ani and the ischial spine anococcygeal raphe and the coccyx elevates the pelvic floor branches of the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S3-S4 inferior gluteal a. the combination of puborectalis, pubococcygeus and iliococcygeus is called the levator ani m.
ischiocavernosus medial surface of the ischial tuberosity and the ischiopubic ramus corpus cavernosum and crus of the penis/clitoris compresses the corpus cavernosum deep branch of the perineal nerve (from pudendal nerve) perineal a. ischiocavernosus m. is closely applied to the surface of the crus penis/clitoris
levator ani posterior surface of the body of the pubis, fascia of the obturator internus m. (arcus tendineus levator ani), ischial spine anococcygeal raphe and coccyx elevates the pelvic floor branches of the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S3-S4 inferior gluteal a. the combination of puborectalis, pubococcygeus & iliococcygeus is the levator ani m.; coccygeus and levator ani combined form the pelvic diaphragm
levator prostatae posterior aspect of the pubis fascia of the prostate elevates the prostate branches of the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S3-S4 inferior gluteal a. levator prostatae is part of the puborectalis m.
obturator internus the internal surface of the obturator membrane and margin of the obturator foramen greater trochanter on its medial surface above the trochanteric fossa laterally rotates and abducts the thigh nerve to the obturator internus m. obturator a. the obturator internus m. leaves the pelvis by passing through the lesser sciatic foramen; the superior and inferior gemellus mm. insert on the obturator internus tendon
piriformis anterior surface of sacrum upper border of greater trochanter of femur laterally rotates and abducts thigh ventral rami of S1-S2   piriformis leaves the pelvis by passing through the greater sciatic foramen
pubococcygeus posterior aspect of the superior pubic ramis coccyx elevates the pelvic floor branches of the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S3-S4 inferior gluteal a. the combination of puborectalis, pubococcygeus and iliococcygeus is called the levator ani m.
puborectalis posterior aspect of the body of the pubis unites with the puborectalis m. of other side posterior to the rectum draws the distal rectum forward and superiorly; aids in voluntary retention of feces branches of the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S3-S4 inferior gluteal a. the combination of puborectalis, pubococcygeus and iliococcygeus is called the levator ani m.
pubovaginalis posterior aspect of the body of the pubis fascia of the vagina and perineal body draws the vagina forward and superiorly branches of the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S3-S4 inferior gluteal a. pubovaginalis is part of the levator ani muscle
sphincter ani externus perineal body or central tendinous point of the perineum encircles the anal canal; superficial fibers attach to the coccyx constricts the anal canal inferior rectal nerves (from the pudendal nerve) inferior rectal a. skeletal (voluntary) muscle, as contrasted with sphincter ani internus, which is smooth (involuntary) muscle; the external anal sphincter is considered part of the pelvic diaphragm
sphincter ani internus encircles the anal canal encircles the anal canal constricts the anal canal parasympathetic fibers from S4 middle rectal a. smooth muscle (involuntary), as contrasted with sphincter ani externus, which is skeletal muscle (voluntary)
sphincter urethrae, in female encircles the urethra encircles urethra and vagina; extends superiorly along the urethra as far as the inferior surface of the bladder compresses urethra and vagina deep branch of perineal nerve from pudendal nerve internal pudendal a. skeletal muscle
sphincter urethrae, in male encircles the urethra encircles urethra, reaches lateral surface of prostate and inferior bladder compresses urethra deep branch of perineal nerve from pudendal nerve internal pudendal a. skeletal muscle
superficial transverse perineus medial surface of the ischial ramus contralateral muscle and the perineal body/central tendinous point fixes and stabilizes perineal body/central tendinous point deep branch of perineal nerve from pudendal nerve perineal a. superficial and deep transverse perineus muscles are separated by the perineal membrane
transverse perineus, deep medial surface of the ischial ramus contralateral muscle and perineal body/central tendinous point fixes and stabilizes the perineal body/central tendinous point deep branch of perineal nerve from pudendal nerve internal pudendal a. superficial and deep transverse perineus muscles are separated by the perineal membrane
transverse perineus, superficial medial surface of the ischial ramus contralateral muscle and the perineal body/central tendinous point fixes and stabilizes perineal body/central tendinous point deep branch of perineal nerve from pudendal nerve perineal a. superficial and deep transverse perineus muscles are separated by the perineal membrane

Some of the material presented in these tables is contained in the book:
MedCharts Anatomy by Thomas R. Gest and Jaye Schlesinger
Published by ILOC, Inc., New York. Copyright 1995.

Content of these tables has been edited for use in this course by Patrick W. Tank, Ph.D.
Copyright 2009, Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences.

Unauthorized use is prohibited.