Thoracic Wall, Intercostal Muscles, Pleurae and Lungs

Gross Anatomy

Thoracic Wall, Intercostal Space, Pleural Cavities, Lungs


Anatomy Tables for Today's Topic

Topographic Anatomy of the Thorax
Bones of the Thoracic Wall
Muscles of the Thoracic Wall
Nerves of the Thoracic Wall
Arteries of the Thoracic Wall
Veins of the Thoracic Wall
Fasciae of the Thorax
Joints of the Thoracic Wall
Pleurae, Lungs and Bronchial Tree
Nerves of the Thoracic Cavity
Arteries of the Thoracic Cavity
Veins of the Thoracic Cavity
Lymphatics of the Lung and Bronchial Tree


Topographic Anatomy of the Thorax

Structure/Space Description/Boundaries Significance
midaxillary line an imaginary vertical line passing through the middle of the axilla used as a surface landmark for descriptive purposes
midclavicular line an imaginary vertical line passing through the midshaft of the clavicle used as a surface landmark for descriptive purposes
nipple located superficial to the 4th intercostal space in the male and prepuberal female location of the left nipple may be used to help locate the apex of heart, which is approximately 8 cm from the midline in the left 5th intercostal space; a surface landmark used to place the stethoscope for auscultation of the bicuspid valve
sternal angle a protrusion on the anterior thoracic wall at the junction of the manubrium and body of the sternum (manubriosternal symphysis) sternal angle is the location of the attachment of t the costal cartilage of the 2nd rib to the sternum; an imaginary horizontal plane through the sternal angle passes through the T4/T5 intervertebral disc and marks the inferior boundary of the superior mediastinum
suprasternal notch the notch located at the superior border of the manubrium of the sternum, between the sternal ends of the clavicles also known as: jugular notch
thoracic inlet the opening at the superior end of the rib cage through which cervical structures enter the thorax; bounded by the T1 vertebral body, both of the 1st ribs and their costal cartilages, and the manubrium of the sternum thoracic inlet marks the boundary between the neck and the superior mediastinum; also known as: superior thoracic aperture
thoracic outlet the opening at the inferior end of the rib cage through which thoracic structures exit the thorax; it is bounded by the T12 vertebral body, both 12th ribs, the costal cartilages of ribs 7-12, and the xiphisternal joint thoracic outlet is closed by the respiratory diaphragm which is attached at its boundary; also known as: inferior thoracic aperture

Bones of the Thoracic Wall

Bone Structure Description Notes
rib the bone forming the lateral thoracic wall 12 pairs; several types are described: typical or "true" ribs, "false" ribs, "floating" ribs; all three types of ribs have many features in common: head, neck, tubercle, angle, body, costal groove
head posteromedial end of the rib it articulates with demifacets of two adjacent vertebral bodies
neck the constricted region lateral to the head of the rib the neck of the rib is located between the head and the tubercle
tubercle a projection located posteroinferior and lateral to the neck of the rib it articulates with the transverse process of a vertebra
body the shaft of the rib the body is the longest part of a typical rib
angle the marked angulation of the body located just lateral to the tubercle the angle of the rib is its most posterior part
costal groove the groove on the inner surface of the inferior border of the body of the rib it accommodates the intercostal neurovascular bundle; the costal groove provides a protective function for the intercostal neurovascular bundle,
ribs 1-7 "true" ribs - those which attach directly to the sternum true ribs actually attach to the sternum by means of a costal cartilage and a true synovial joint
rib 1 the most cephalic rib it is the broadest, shortest and widest of the ribs; the scalene tubercle marks its superior surface and is an elevation between grooves for the subclavian vein & artery; the scalene tubercle is the attachment site of the scalenus anterior m.
rib 2 the rib attached to the 1st and 2nd thoracic vertebrae it articulates via a costal cartilage with the sternum at the level of the sternal angle; its superior surface is roughened by the attachments of the scalene mm.
rib 8-10 "false" ribs they articulate via costal cartilages with the costal cartilage of rib 7
rib 11-12 "floating" ribs the anterior ends of these ribs do not articulate with the sternum or the costal cartilage of the rib above; their costal cartilages are short and end in the muscle of the posterolateral abdominal wall
sternum the broad flat bone forming the anterior thoracic wall it is formed by three parts: manubrium, body, xiphoid process
manubrium the superior part of the sternum manubrium means "handle", as in the handle of a sword
jugular (suprasternal) notch a notch on the superior border of the manubrium it is located between the clavicular notches which articulate with the sternal ends of the clavicles
clavicular notch a notch on the superolateral border of the manubrium it articulate with the sternal end of the clavicle
sternal angle the junction of the manubrium and body of the sternum it is an anterior projection located at the level of the costal cartilage of rib 2; an important landmark for internal thoracic anatomy
body the middle part of the sternum it articulates with the manubrium superiorly and the xiphoid process inferiorly; laterally it articulates with the costal cartilages of ribs 2-7
xiphoid process the inferior part of the sternum xiphoid means "sword shaped"; it is variable in size, shape & ossification; it articulates with the body of the sternum superiorly

Muscles of the Thoracic Wall

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation Artery Notes
external intercostal lower border of a rib within an intercostal space upper border of the rib below, coursing, downward and medially keeps the intercostal space from blowing out or sucking in during respiration intercostal nerves (T1-T11) intercostal a. 11 in number; they extend from the tubercle of the rib to the costochondral junction; continuous with the external intercostal membrane anteriorly
innermost intercostal upper borders of a rib fibers course up and medially to insert on the inferior margin of the rib above keeps the intercostal space from blowing out or sucking in during respiration intercostal nerves (T1-T11) intercostal a. innermost intercostal mm. have the same fiber direction as the internal intercostal mm., the only difference being that they lie deep to the intercostal neurovascular bundle
internal intercostal upper border of a rib lower border of rib above, coursing up and medially keeps the intercostal space from blowing out or sucking in during respiration intercostal nerves (T1-T11) intercostal a. 11 in number; they extend from the margin of the sternum to the angle of the rib; continuous posteriorly with the internal intercostal membrane
serratus posterior inferior thoracolumbar fascia, spines of vertebrae T11-T12 and L1-L2 ribs 9-12, lateral to the angles pulls down lower ribs branches of the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves T9-T12 lowest posterior intercostal a., subcostal a., first two lumbar aa. a respiratory muscle, it receives ventral ramus innervation; embryonically related to the intercostal muscles, not the deep back mm.
serratus posterior superior ligamentum nuchae, spines of vertebrae C7 and T1-T3 ribs 1-4, lateral to the angles elevates the upper ribs branches of the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves T1-T4 posterior intercostal aa. 1-4 a respiratory muscle, it receives ventral ramus innervation; embryonically related to the intercostal muscles, not the deep back mm.
subcostalis angle of ribs angle of a rib 2-3 ribs above origin compresses the intercostal spaces intercostal nerves intercostal a. subcostalis, transversus thoracis & innermost intercostal mm. make up the deepest intercostal muscle layer
transversus thoracis posterior surface of the sternum inner surfaces of costal cartilages 2-6 compresses the thorax for forced expiration intercostal nerves 2-6 internal thoracic a. transversus thoracis, subcostalis & innermost intercostal mm. make up the innermost intercostal muscle layer

Nerves of the Thoracic Wall

Nerve Source Branches Motor Sensory Notes
intercostal n. ventral primary rami of spinal nerves T1-T11 lateral & anterior cutaneous brs. intercostal muscles; abdominal wall muscles (via T7-T11); muscles of the forearm and hand (via T1) skin of the chest and abdomen anterolaterally; skin of the medial side of the upper limb (via T1-T2) intercostal n.travels below the posterior intercostal a. in the costal groove
subcostal n. ventral primary ramus of T12 lateral cutaneous br., anterior cutaneous br. muscles of the abdominal wall skin of the anterolateral abdominal wall the subcostal n. is equivalent to a posterior intercostal n. found at higher thoracic levels

Arteries of the Thoracic Wall

ArterySourceBranchesSupplyNotes
epigastric, superior internal thoracic a. no named branches upper rectus abdominis m., upper abdominal wall superior epigastric a. is the direct continuation of the internal thoracic a.; it s anastomoses with the inferior epigastric a. within the rectus abdominis m.
intercostal, anterior internal thoracic a. (upper 6 intercostal spaces), musculophrenic a. (7-10th intercostal spaces) unnamed muscular branches intercostal muscles anteriorly; skin overlying the intercostal muscles there are two anterior intercostal aa. per side per intercostal space, one coursing above and one coursing below each rib
intercostal, highest costocervical trunk posterior intercostal aa. for intercostal spaces 1-2 intercostal muscles of intercostal spaces 1 and 2, vertebral column, deep back muscles highest intercostal a. is also known as: supreme intercostal a.
intercostal, posterior highest intercostal (upper 2 intercostal spaces), descending thoracic aorta (3rd-11th intercostal spaces) posterior br., spinal br., anterior br., collateral br., lateral cutaneous br. intercostal muscles, spinal cord and vertebral column, deep back muscles, skin and superficial fascia overlying the intercostal spaces posterior intercostal aa. supply the lateral and posterior portions of the intercostal space; anterior intercostal aa. supply the anterior portions of the intercostal spaces
musculophrenic internal thoracic a. anterior intercostal aa. anterior diaphragm, anterior aspects of intercostal spaces 7-10 or 11 musculophrenic a. supplies muscles that develop in the septum transversum
thoracic, internal subclavian a. (1st part) pericardiocophrenic a., perforating brs., anterior intercostal aa., mediastinal brs., thymic brs., musculophrenic a., superior epigastric a. mediastinum, anterior thoracic wall, anterior abdominal wall, respiratory diaphragm internal thoracic a. is also known as: internal mammary a.

Veins of the Thoracic Wall

VeinTributariesDrains IntoRegions DrainedNotes
intercostal, posterior lateral cutaneous br. 1st: brachiocephalic v.; 2nd-4th: superior intercostal v.; right 5th-11th: azygos v.; left 5th-7th or 8th: accessory hemiazygos v.; left 9th-11th: hemiazygos v. intercostal space including skin, muscles and adjacent ribs; the spinal cord at that segmental level and the corresponding vertebra the difference in termination of the intercostal vv. of the left and right sides is explained by the embryonic origin of the azygos system from the (originally symmetrical) supracardinal vv.
intercostal, superior 2nd-4th posterior intercostal vv. right: arch of the azygos v.; left: left brachiocephalic v, intercostal spaces 2-4 superior intercostal v. develops from the cephalic end of the supracardinal v. in the embryo


Fasciae of the Thorax

Structure Location/Description Notes
fascia, endothoracic connective tissue lining the inner aspect of the chest wall endothoracic fascia is located between the parietal pleura and the muscles and bones of the thoracic wall; it is equivalent to the transversalis fascia layer of the abdomen
fascia, Sibson's part of the scalene fascia that lines the cervical parietal pleura Sibson's fascia anchors the dome of cervical pleura; it is continuous with the endothoracic fascia at the level of the first rib

Joints of the Thoracic Wall

Joint or ligament Description Notes
costal cartilage the cartilage that caps the medial end of the rib costal cartilages of ribs 1-7 connect to the sternum; costal cartilages of ribs 8-10 connect to the costal cartilage of rib 7; costal cartilages of ribs 11 & 12 do not articulate anteriorly but end in the muscles of the abdominal wall
radiate sternocostal ligaments ligaments that reinforce the sternocostal joint capsule these ligaments connect the costal cartilages of ribs 1-7 with the sternum on both the anterior and posterior surfaces of the sternocostal articulation
sternal angle the angle formed by the articulation between the manubrium and the body of the sternum a synchondrosis; the cartilage within this joint usually does not become ossified until old age; the angle formed by this articulation is also called the angle of Louis; the sternal angle marks the level of the second costal cartilage from which all other ribs are counted
sternocostal joints the articulations that connect the costal cartilages with the sternum a synchondrosis (rib 1) or synovial joints (ribs 2-10); sternocostal synovial joints involving ribs 2-7 contain thin joint capsules; interchondral joints involving ribs 8-10 have simple gliding synovial articulations; radiate sternocostal ligaments reinforce the sternocostal articulations
xiphisternal joint the articulation that connects the xiphoid process with the body of the sternum a synchondrosis; the cartilage within this joint usually becomes ossified in old age; the xiphisternal joint marks the inferior extent of the thoracic cavity

Pleurae, Lungs and Bronchial Tree

OrganLocation/DescriptionNotes
pleura serous membrane lining the pleural cavity there are two types of pleura: visceral pleura covers the lungs, parietal pleura lines the inner surfaces of the walls of pleural cavity; parietal pleura is sensitive to pain but visceral pleura is not sensitive to pain
pleura, cervical parietal serous membrane lining the pleural cavity which extends above the level of the 1st rib into the root of the neck cervical parietal pleura is continuous inferiorly with the costal and mediastinal parietal pleurae; it is reinforced by a specialization of scalene fascia (called Sibson's fascia or suprapleural membrane); also known as: cupula or cervical dome of pleura
pleura, costal parietal serous membrane lining the pleural cavity on the inner surfaces of the ribs, costal cartilages, and intercostal mm. costal parietal pleura is continuous anteriorly with the mediastinal parietal pleura at the costomediastinal reflection; it is continuous posteriorly with the mediastinal parietal pleural at the vertebral bodies; it is continuous inferiorly with the diaphragmatic parietal pleura at the costodiaphragmatic reflection; it is continuous superiorly with the cervical parietal pleura at the level of the 1st rib
pleura, diaphragmatic parietal serous membrane lining the pleural cavity on the superior surface of the diaphragm diaphragmatic parietal pleura is continuous superiorly with the costal parietal pleura at the costodiaphragmatic reflection; it is continuous superiorly with the mediastinal pleura at the inferomedial borders of the pleural cavities
pleura, mediastinal parietal serous membrane lining the pleural cavity on the lateral surface of the mediastinum mediastinal parietal pleura is continuous anteriorly with the costal parietal pleura at the costomediastinal reflection; it is continuous inferiorly with the diaphragmatic pleura at the inferomedial borders of the pleural cavities; it is continuous posteriorly with the costal parietal pleura lateral to the vertebral bodies; it is continuous superiorly with the cervical pleura at the level of the 1st rib
pleura, visceral serous membrane lining the surfaces of the lungs visceral pleura extends into the oblique and horizontal fissures of the lungs; it does not have pain fibers
pulmonary ligament fold of pleura located below the root of the lung pulmonary ligament is where the visceral pleura and the mediastinal parietal pleura are continuous with each other
cupula serous membrane lining the pleural cavity which extends above the level of the 1st rib into the root of the neck cupular pleura is continuous inferiorly with the costal and mediastinal parietal pleurae; it is reinforced by a specialization of scalene fascia (called Sibson's fascia or suprapleural membrane); also known as: cervical parietal pleura or cervical dome of pleura
bronchi the air conducting passages of the lungs bronchi may be classified as primary, secondary (lobar), and tertiary (segmental)
bronchus, primary first branch of the air conducting system arising from the bifurcation of the trachea at T4/T5 intervertebral disc paired, right and left; one primary bronchus enters the hilus of each lung; the right primary bronchus is shorter, larger in diameter and more vertically oriented than the left so that aspirated foreign bodies tend to lodge in the right primary bronchus
bronchus, secondary a branch of the air conducting system arising from the primary bronchus there are 3 secondary bronchi in the right lung: upper, middle, lower; there are 2 secondary bronchi in the left lung: upper, lower; also known as: lobar bronchi
bronchus, tertiary a branch of the air conducting system arising from the secondary (lobar) bronchus there are 10 tertiary bronchi in the right lung: branching from the right superior lobar bronchus - apical, anterior, posterior; branching from the right middle lobar bronchus - medial, lateral; branching from the right inferior lobar bronchus - superior, anterior basal, posterior basal, medial basal, lateral basal; there are 8 tertiary bronchi in the left lung: branching from the left superior lobar bronchus - apicoposterior, anterior; branching from the lingular bronchus (off of the superior lobar bronchus) - superior lingular, inferior lingular; branching from the inferior lobar bronchus - superior, anteromedial basal, posterior basal, lateral basal; also known as: segmental bronchi
bronchus, segmental a branch of the air conducting system arising from the secondary (lobar) bronchus there are 10 tertiary bronchi in the right lung: branching from the right superior lobar bronchus - apical, anterior, posterior; branching from the right middle lobar bronchus - medial, lateral; branching from the right inferior lobar bronchus - superior, anterior basal, posterior basal, medial basal, lateral basal; there are 8 tertiary bronchi in the left lung: branching from the left superior lobar bronchus - apicoposterior, anterior; branching from the lingular bronchus (off of the superior lobar bronchus) - superior lingular, inferior lingular; branching from the inferior lobar bronchus - superior, anteromedial basal, posterior basal, lateral basal; also known as: tertiary bronchi
carina keel-shaped cartilage lying within the tracheal bifurcation carina trachealis is an important landmark during endoscopy of the bronchial tree
lung the portion of the respiratory system where exchange of gasses occurs between the air and the blood; located in the thoracic cavity paired; right lung is divided into three lobes: superior, middle and inferior; left lung has two lobes: superior and inferior
fissure, oblique deep groove in the surface of the lung that separates the upper lobe from the lower lobe (both lungs), and the middle lobe from the lower lobe (right lung) oblique fissure extends from the level of the T3 vertebra posteriorly to the 6th costochondral junction anteriorly
fissure, horizontal deep groove in the surface of the lung that separates the middle lobe from the upper lobe (right lung only) horizontal fissure extends from the 5th rib at the mid-axillary line along the 4th rib to the sternum anteriorly
lobe, inferior the portion of the lung supplied by the inferior lobar bronchus inferior lobe of the right lung: possesses 5 bronchopulmonary segments - superior, anterior basal, posterior basal, medial basal, lateral basal; inferior lobe of the left lung: possesses 4 bronchopulmonary segments - superior, anteromedial basal, posterior basal, lateral basal
lobe, middle the portion of the right lung supplied by the middle lobar bronchus middle lobe is found in the right lung only; it possesses 2 bronchopulmonary segments: medial and lateral; lingula of the inferior lobe of the left lung is equivalent to the middle lobe of the right lung
lobe, superior the portion of the lung supplied by the superior lobar bronchus superior lobe of the right lung: possesses three bronchopulmonary segments - apical, anterior and posterior; superior lobe of the left lung: possesses four bronchopulmonary segments - apicoposterior, anterior, superior lingular, inferior lingular

Nerves of the Thoracic Cavity

NerveSourceBranchesMotorSensoryNotes
phrenic n. ventral primary rami of spinal nerves C3-C5 (cervical plexus) no named branches skeletal muscle of the respiratory diaphragm diaphragmatic pleura; some fibers contributed to the pericardium and to the adjacent mediastinal and costal pleurae phrenic n. crosses the anterior surface of the anterior scalene m.
plexus, pulmonary continuous with the cardiac plexus; thoracic visceral nn.; pulmonary brs. of vagus no named branches parasympathetic: smooth muscle & glands of the bronchial tree; sympathetic: vascular smooth muscle of the lungs none pulmonary plexus is located along the pulmonary vessels and primary bronchi in the root of the lung
vagus n. medulla: dorsal motor nucleus (GVE preganglionic parasympathetic); inferior ganglion (GVA); nucleus ambiguus (SVE); superior ganglion (GSA); inferior ganglion(SVA) auricular br., pharyngeal br., superior laryngeal, superior and inferior cervical cardiac brs., recurrent laryngeal n., thoracic cardiac brs., brs. to the pulmonary plexus, brs. to the esophageal plexus, anterior and posterior vagal trunks SVE: intrinsic muscles of the larynx, pharynx (except stylopharyngeus), and palate (except tensor veli palatini); GVE: smooth muscle of the respiratory tree & gut (proximal to the left colic flexure), heart; secretomotor: mucous glands of the larynx, respiratory tree, pharynx and gut; secretomotor to digestive glands GSA: skin of the external auditory meatus; GVA: viscera of head, neck, thorax & abdomen proximal to the left colic flexure; SVA: taste from the epiglottis also known as: CN X, 10th cranial nerve; the vagus n. passes through the jugular foramen to exit the posterior cranial fossa; vagus means "wanderer" in reference to its extensive distribution to the body cavities

Arteries of the Thoracic Cavity

ArterySourceBranchesSupplyNotes
bronchial, left descending thoracic aorta right bronchial a. (occasionally) lower trachea, bronchial tree there are usually two left bronchial aa.
bronchial, right 3rd right posterior intercostal no named branches lower trachea, bronchial tree right bronchial a. may arise from the left bronchial a.
pulmonary a. pulmonary trunk right: superior lobar a. to the superior lobe and inferior lobar a. to the middle and inferior lobes; left: superior lobar a. to the superior lobe, inferior lobar a. to the inferior lobe lungs each pulmonary a. carries deoxygenated blood to the hilum of one lung
pulmonary trunk right ventricle right pulmonary a., left pulmonary a. lungs the pulmonary trunk carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the right and left pulmonary aa.; each pulmonary a. carries deoxygenated blood to the hilum of one lung; bronchial aa. supply oxygenated blood to the tissues of the lung as far distally in the bronchial tree as the respiratory bronchioles

Veins of the Thoracic Cavity

VeinTributariesDrains IntoRegion DrainedNotes
pulmonarylobar vv.left atriumlungsusually two pulmonary vv. per side, superior & inferior; all empty into the left atrium

Lymphatics of the Lung and Bronchial Tree

StructureLocationAfferents fromEfferents toRegions drainedNotes
bronchomediastinal trunk along the course of the brachiocephalic v. union of efferents from the paratracheal nodes, parasternal nodes and anterior mediastinal nodes left: thoracic duct; right: right lymphatic duct thoracic wall and viscera; medial part of the mammary gland right bronchomediastinal trunk receives lymph from the lower lobe of the left lung; bronchomediastinal trunk may drain directly into the venous system on either side
bronchopulmonary nodes hilum of the lung pulmonary nodes tracheobronchial nodes lung bronchopulmonary nodes are also known as: hilar nodes
hilar nodes at hilum of lung pulmonary nodes tracheobronchial nodes lung also known as: bronchopulmonary nodes
mediastinal nodes, anterior along the course of the brachiocephalic vessels and aorta lymphatic vessels from the anterior mediastinum and middle mediastinum bronchomediastinal trunk thymus, anterior respiratory diaphragm, pericardium, part of the heart anterior mediastinal nodes are from 2 to 5 in number
mediastinal nodes, posterior along azygos system of veins and esophagus viscera of the posterior mediastinum and chest wall thoracic duct, inferior tracheobronchial nodes, superior tracheobronchial nodes posterior mediastinum, posterior aspect of the heart and pericardium, posterior part of the respiratory diaphragm posterior mediastinal nodes drain primarily to the thoracic duct
paratracheal nodes coursing along the lateral surface of the trachea and esophagus superior tracheobronchial nodes bronchomediastinal trunk lungs, trachea, upper esophagus, the part of the larynx below the vocal folds paratracheal nodes are an important group of nodes in cases of pulmonary infection or lung cancer; also known as: tracheal nodes
pulmonary nodes within the lung parenchyma lymphatic vessels from the parenchyma of the lung bronchopulmonary (hilar) nodes lung parenchyma, bronchial tree within the lungs pulmonary nodes are located along the larger bronchi of the lung
tracheal nodes coursing along the lateral surface of the trachea and esophagus superior tracheobronchial nodes bronchomediastinal trunk lungs, trachea, upper esophagus, the part of the larynx below the vocal folds tracheal nodes are an important group of nodes in cases of pulmonary infection or lung cancer; also known as: paratracheal nodes
tracheobronchial nodes along the trachea, around the tracheal bifurcation and primary bronchi lymphatic vessels from the lung bronchomediastinal lymph trunk lungs, visceral pleura, bronchi, thoracic part of trachea, left side of heart, esophagus, posterior mediastinum tracheobronchial nodes may be divided into five groups: paratracheal (tracheal), superior tracheobronchial, inferior tracheobronchial, bronchopulmonary (hilar), pulmonary
tracheobronchial nodes, inferior inferior to tracheal bifurcation bronchopulmonary nodes, left side inferior tracheobronchial nodes drain into right inferior tracheobronchial nodes right superior tracheobronchial nodes lower lobes of the lungs; middle mediastinum; posterior mediastinum left inferior tracheobronchial nodes drain to the right side
tracheobronchial nodes, superior superolateral to the tracheal bifurcation bronchopulmonary (hilar) nodes paratracheal (tracheal) nodes lungs, middle mediastinum, posterior mediastinum inferior tracheobronchial nodes drain lymph from the lower lobe of the left lung to the right superior tracheobronchial nodes

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Some of the material presented in these tables is contained in the book:
MedCharts Anatomy by Thomas R. Gest and Jaye Schlesinger
Published by ILOC, Inc., New York. Copyright 1995.

Content of these tables has been edited for use in this course by Patrick W. Tank, Ph.D.
Copyright 2005, Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences.

Unauthorized use is prohibited.